Previous section: Eastern Division Second Wave: Verses 1 - 123

Sri Rupa Goswami’s Bhakti-Rasamrta-Sindhuh

Sanskrta Text with Devanagari Script

With transliteration in English


English Translation with Comments

Volume I


Translated by


Rector, Institute of Oriental Philosophy

Vrndavan, U.P., India





Verses 124 - 209




Text 124:


padme ca:

krisna-mamaksarair-gatram anka yec candanadina |

sa loka-pavano bhutva tasya lokam-avapnuyat ||124||


       Translation: It is mentioned in the Padma Puranam that one who decorates his body with the letters of the Name of Lord Krsna with sandal-paste etc. soon becomes sanctified of the universe and enters into the Realm of the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna. –124-



Text 125:


(23) – nirmalya-dhritih yatha ekadase:  53                  

tvayopabhukta-srag-dandha-vaso ‘lankara-carcitah |

ucchista-bhojino dasas tava mayam jayema hi ||125||


       Translation: (23) ACCEPTANCE OF NIRMALYA (flower garlands, Tulasi with sandal-paste, etc. offered to the Sri-Vigraha, i.e. Deity or Figure) of Lord Visnu or Lord Krsna:


       Sri Uddhava addressing Lord Sri Krsna says: "Oh Lord! We are Thy eternal servants, living on the remains of Thy Food; we shall certainly be able to conquer Thy Maya by anointing ourselves with the scent, sandal, garlands, clothes and ornaments that have already been enjoyed by Thee! –125-


       Commentary: In support of the above sloka of the Bhagavatam, Sri Jiva Gosvami quotes two other verses from the Bhagavatam (Canto XI, Chapter 6, slokas 47 and 48) where Sri Uddhava says: "Lord! It is true that the self-controlled, meditative, naked, penance-enduring, continent and pure-minded monks attain Brahma-dhama; but we who are engaged in Karma and wander in the various worlds shall be able to surmount Thy impassable Maya by singing Thy glories in the company of Thy devotees!" -125-


53 Bhagavatam, Canto XI, Chap. 6, sloka 46.107



Text 126:


skande ca:

krisnottirnantu nirmalyam yasyangam sprisate mune |

sarva-rogais tatha papair-mukto bhavati narada ||126||


       Translation: It is stated in the Skanda Puranam: "Oh Sage Narada! One whose body is touched by the offered flowers, flower garland, Tulasi and Sandal from the Body of the Vigraha (the Deity as Symbol of the Eternal Form of the Lord,  worshipped in the temple) of Lord Krsna is freed from all diseases and all his sins."  -126-



Text 127:


(24 )– agre tandavam yatha dvaraka-mahatmye:

yo nrityati pharristatma bhavair-bahu-subhaktitah |

sa nirdhati papani manvantara-satesv api ||127||


       Translation: (24) FRANTIC DANCE IN FRONT OF THE SRI VIGRAHA: It is stated in the Dvaraka-mahatmya that he who cheerfully and with overwhelming emotions of Bhakti frantically dances in front of the Lord, has his sins of many many Manvantaras completely burnt into ashes. –127-


       Translator's note: One Manvantara equals 71 series of Four Ages, i.e. in each Manvantara the Four Ages revolve 71 times. The Four Ages are Satya, Treta, Dvapara and Kali. The Four Ages are equivalent to 43,20,000 years. –127-



Text 128:


tatha sri-naradoktau ca:

nrityam sri-pater-agre talika-vadanair-bhrisam |

uddiyante sarira-sthah sarve pataka-paksinah || 128 ||


       Translation: So also said by Sri Narada: All sins, like so many birds, fly away from the bodies of those who repeatedly dance in front of Sripati, the Lord of Laksmi (Supreme Lord Narayana) to the accompaniment of clapping of hands.-128-



Text 129:


(25) – dandavan natih yatha naradiye:

eko ‘pi krisnaya kritah pranamo dasasvamedhavabhrithairna tulyah |

dasasvamedhi punareti janma krisna-pranami na punar-bhavaya ||129||


       Translation: (25) PROSTRATED OBEISANCES: It is mentioned in the Narada-Pancaratra that performances of ten Asvemedha-Yajnas (a Vedic sacrificial rite by which a ksatriya king sends out a horse, challenging all rulers in order to be the emperor over them all) cannot be compared with a single prostrates obeisance to the Feet of the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna, because one who performs even ten Asvemedha-Yajnas has to be reborn whereas one who has once prostrated before the Feet of the Lord is not born again. –129-



Text 130:


(26) – ABHYUTTHANAM,  yatha brahmande:

yanarudham purah preksya samayantam janardanam |

abhyutthanam narah kurvan patayet sarva-kilbisam || 130 ||




        It is said in the Brahmanda Puranam that he who rises from his seat observing the Sri Vigraha (Deity) of Lord Janardana coming in front riding a chariot has all his sins destroyed. –130-



Text 131:


(27 )– Atha  ANUVRAJYA,  yatha bhavisyottare:

rathena saha gacchanti parsvatah pristhato ‘gratah |

visnunaiva samah sarve bhavanti svapadacayah || 131 ||




It is mentioned in the Bhavisya Puranam that even a candala who eats dog's flesh become raised to the venerable status of Lord Visnu Himself if he follows the Lord in a chariot or any other carriage by its side, from behind or in front. -131-



Text 132:



sthanam tirtham grihancasya tatra tirthe gatir-yatha || 132 ||


       Translation: (28) VISIT TO THE LORD'S PLACE:

       By 'Place' here should be understood a place of pilgrimage (associated with the Lord) and His temple, which are to be visited. –132-



Text 133:



samsara-marukantara-nistara-karana-ksamau |

slaghyau taveva caranau yau hares-tirtha gaminau || 133 ||


       Translation: It is mentioned in another Puranam:


       The two legs that walk to the places of pilgrimage associated with Lord Hari becomes means of crossing the desert of this world and are praiseworthy. -133-



Text 134:


alaye ca yatha bhari-bhakti-sudhodaya:

pravisann-alayam visnor-darsanartham subhaktiman |

na bhuyah pravisen-matuh kuksikaragriham sudhih || 134 ||


       Translation: Also TO THE TEMPLE:


       As is mentioned in the Haribhaktisudhoday, if persons of pure Bhakti and true wisdom enter into the temple for a sight of the Lord Visnu, they do not ever again enter into the prison of the mother's womb. –134-



Text 135:


(29)- PARIKRAMO,  yatha tatraiva:

visnum pradaksini-kurvan yas tatravartate punah |

tad evavantanam tasya punar-navartate bhave || 135 ||


       Translation: (29) CIRCUMAMBULATION:


       It is said in the Haribhaktisudhodaya that one who circumambulates Lord Visnu repeatedly, has not to pass through the cycles of births and deaths any more, for, that is his last cycle in this world. –135-




Text 136:


skande ca caturmasya-mahatmye:

catur-varam bhramibhistu jagat sarvam caracaram |

krantam bhavati vipragrya tat tirtha-gamanadhikam || 136 ||


       Translation: It is further stated in the Caturmasya-mahatmya of the Skanda Puranam that those who have circumambulated Lord Visnu four times have gone round the entire universe of all animate and inanimate objects, and such circumambulation of Lord Visnu (His Vigraha in a temple) is, Oh great among brahmanas! Of greater importance than going on pilgrimage. -136-



Text 137:


(30) – atha arcanam:

suddhi-nyasadi-purvanga-karma-nirvaha-purvakam |

arcanam tupacaranam syan-mantrenopapadanam || 137 ||


       Translation: (30) Next, WORSHIP:


       Offering of the materials or ingredients along with mantram (revealed syllables with transcendental potency) to Lord Visnu after one has first finished purification of the elements and Matrika-nyasa, is called Arcana, i.e. worship. –137-



Text 138:


tad yatha dasame:--54    

svargapavargayoh pumsam rasayam bhuvi sampadam |

sarvasam api siddhinam mulam tac caranarcanam || 138 ||


       Translation: For example, in the Tenth Canto of the Bhagavatam:


       After meeting Lord Sri Krsna at Dvaraka while returning home, Sri Sudama Brahmana mused in his mind that worship of the Feet of Lord Sri Krsna is the source of all kinds of mukti for all, including all the wealth of heaven, earth and the subterranean, regions. –138-


54  Bhagavatam, Canto X, Chap. 81, sloka 19.108



Text 139:


visnurahasye ca:

sri-visnor arcanam ye tu prakurvanti nara bhuvi |

te yanti sasvatam visnor anandam paramam padam || 139 ||


       Translation: Also in Visnurahasya:


       It is stated in the Visnurahasya that those who worship Lord Visnu on this earth attain to the supreme spiritual Realm of Lord Visnu, which abounds in eternal delight.  –139-


       Commentary: Here according to Sri Jiva Gosvami in the above text, the Arcana or worship has been regarded as the principal element, and by eulogizing Arcana or worship, the spiritual efficacy of the other elements has been softly emphasized. According to one interpretation of this text, what is emphasized is that in the absence of worship the other elements of Bhakti, i.e. Vaidhi Sadhana-Bhakti, may be usefully resorted to. According to a second interpretation, in the case of

persons confused about the true character of the different elements of Bhakti, resort to other elements in the absence of Arcana or worship is useless. The first interpretation is supported by various statements in the Bhagavatam prescribing the other elements where Arcana is lacking. Thus, in the Eleventh Canto, Chapter 14, sloka 3, Lord Sri Krsna addressing Sri Uddhava says: In the Vedas has been described the innate and eternal religion arising out of My Intrinsic Potency, which is Bhakti. When through the effect of time it became hidden from view in the state of Final Dissolution, I Myself instructed Brahma about this Dharma (before another Creation is started).

       In the Second Canto, Chapter 2, sloka 10 of the Bhagavatam sage Sukadeva addressing King Pariksita says: "Whether one be Niskama, i.e. free from all desires, or be a prey to all sorts of desires, or a seeker of liberation, or a man of the right sort of intelligence, one should practice

Bhakti unmixed with the ways of Karma and Jnana, and thereby serve the Supreme Person, viz. God."

       In the above two slokas, the Principal elements of Sadhana-Bhakti have been stated.

       In the Eighth Canto, Chapter 23, Sloka 16, Sri Sukracarya addressing Lord Vamanadeva says: "Even if one loses one's voice and thereby is unable to utter correctly the mantram (revealed spiritual syllables) of Arcana or worship, or if one fails to observe the order of worship laid down in the Tantras, or one becomes otherwise deficient in respect of all the paraphernalia of worship arising out of a particular local situation or a particular time or the particular nature of the individual concerned, all such deficiencies and errors are made good, Oh Lord! By utterance of Thy Name." In this statement ‘Chanting of the Name' as an essential element in worship is described.

        In the Eleventh Canto, Chapter 5, slokas 2-3 of the Bhagavatam, sage Camasa Yogindra addressing King Nimi says: "Out of the Lord's Mouth, His Arms, His Thighs and His Feet have arisen the four Varnas (Classes) and the four Asramas (disciplines) of spiritual culture with the respective qualities, and therefore those who do not worship the Lord who is the Source and Cause of their origin, out of ignorance, or who show contemptuous indifference to such worship even knowing that they owe their existence to the Lord, lose their status in respect of the Class (Varna) to which they belong and the discipline (Asrama) which is appropriate for them and fall to lower depths." Sri Jiva Gosvami points out that this text refers to the Varna-asrama-dharma, which is Misra-Bhakti, i.e. Karmamisra-Bhakli.

       In the Second Canto, Chapter 4, sloka 17 of the Bhagavatam, Sri Sukadeva Gosvami addressing King Pariksita says: "I bow again and again to the Lord who is the very Embodiment of holiness and is reputed throughout the universe as the Source of all spiritual Values, to whom must be rendered all the austerities etc. by aspirants in the way of knowledge and austerities, or believers in the way of karma who specialize by generosity and gifts, or believers in sacrificial cult who perform Asvamedha and other Vedic sacrifices, and believers in repeats muttering of the Name of their chosen Deities, and also individuals known for the purity of all their behavior or dealings, if the activities are to bear their beneficial fruits." Here is stated Bhakti which is attained by imputation (Aropa-Siddha-Bhakti). –139-


       Translator's note: The Arcana-system in Hindu religion in general and in Vaisnavism in particular is most elaborate, which is not found in any other religion of the world. This is one of the most fundamental and vital aspects of Hindu spiritual culture. Be it in Vedic ritualism, or Tantrik practices or Pancaratra system, Arcana finds a very important place. The ingredients of Arcana can be sixteen, viz. (1) Seat; (2) Invocation; (3) Water for washing the Feet of the Deity;

(4) Sacred offering of garlands etc.; (5) Water for washing the Mouth; (6) Oblation of five substances-curds, ghee of cow's milk, sugar, milk and honey; (7) Again water for washing the Mouth, (8) Bathing of the Deity; (9) Clothes; (10) Ornaments; (11) Sweet Scents; (12) Flowers; (13) Incense; (14) Lamp (of ghee or oil); (15) Food or offering of eatables presented to the Deity; (16) Prayer- Asana, Svagata, Padya, Arghya, Acamaniya, 'Madbuparka, Punaracamanaya, Snana, Vasana, Abharana, Sugandha, Puspa, Dhupa, Dipa, Naivedya, and Vandana respectively are the sixteen ingredients of Arcana.

       Ten ingredients in Arcana are also used, viz. (1) Padya on water for washing the Feet of the Deity, (2) Arghya or Sacred Garlands for offering to the Deity, (3) Acamaniya or water for washing the Mouth, (4) Madhuparka, i.e. honey, curds, ghee, sugar, and milk for the purpose of oblation, (5) Punaracamaniya or Water again for washing the Mouth, (6) Sugandha or

sweet scents, (7) Puspa or flowers, (8) Dhupa or incense, (9) Dipa or lamp, and (10) Naivedya or oaring of eatables presented to the Deity.

       In the shortest form of worship or Arcena, five such materials are used, viz. (1) Sweet scents, (2) Flowers, (3) Incense, (4) Lamp, and (5) Offering of eatables presented to the Deity.

       In the Arcana-system, there are elaborate methods of Anga-nyasa, i.e. touching the different parts of the body in conformity with the instructions of the Scriptures; there is Kara-nyasa  i.e. different movements of the hands and fingers in specific Mudras,  i.e. modes of intertwining the fingers during worship, at the time of invoking the Lord, at the time of bathing or at the time of offering Naivediya, etc. –139-




Text: 140


(31) – PARICARYA--

paricarya tu sevopakaranadi pariskriya |

tatha prakirna kac chatravadi tradyair upasana || 140 ||


       Translation: SERVICE:


       Cleansing and purifying (by Mantram and sacred water) the various objects used in worship, and waving the camara (a made of white tail-hairs of a Yak and used in temples) at the time of the Lord's worship, holding the umbrella over the Lord's Deity during the worship, and striking the bell and blowing conch-shell when worship is going on the above are the  TWO kinds of SERVICE through accessories. –140-


       Commentary: Sir Jiva Gosvami observes that Paricarya means using such accessories as one uses in serving the king. –140-



Text 141:


yatha naradiye:

muhurtam va muhurtarddham yasti sthedd-hari-mandire |

sa yati paramam stanam kimu susrusane ratah || 141 ||


       Translation: As in Naradiya Puranam:


       In the Naradiya Puranam it has been stated that he who stays for one moment or even half-a moment in the temple of Lord Hari goes to the Highest Spiritual Realm of the Lord. Therefore, about them who are engaged in the service of the Lord (through the various accessories), one need not say much or what more to speak of them? –141-




Text 142:


yatha caturthe:  55   

yat-pada-sevabhirucis tapasvinam asesa-janmopacitam malam

dhiyah |

sadyah ksinoty anvaham edhati sati yatha padangustha-vinih srita

sarit || 142 ||


       Translation: In the Fourth Canto of the Bhagavatam King Prthu addressing his own subjects says: "The desire for the worship of the Feet of the Lord growing day by day in intensity washes away all accumulated stain of the mind through innumerable births and rebirths in sages like the sacred Ganga that issues from the Feet of the Lord." –142-


55 Bhagavatam, Canto IV, Chap. 2l, sloka 31.109



Text 143:


angani vividhany eva syuh puja-paricaryayoh |

na tani likhitanyatra grantha-vahulya-bhititah || 143 ||


       Translation: Though in respect of Worships and Service through various ingredient there are many other elements that could be mentioned here, but they are not here specifically stated for fear of swelling the bulk of the work (to unmanageable volume). –143-




Text 144:


atha gitam,( 32) –  yatha lainge:

brahmano vasudevakhyam gayamano ‘nisam param |

hareh salokyam apnoti rudra-ganadhikam bhavet || 144 ||


       Translation: (32) Next, SONGS, as in Linga Puranam:


       It has been sung in the Linga Puranam that, a brahmana who sings without break the praise of the Supreme Being Vasudeva attains Salokya or residence in the Realm of Lord Vasudeva (Vaikuntha). A Brahmana's song, in praise of Lord Vasudeva is more fruitful than even the songs of Rudra. –144-


       Commentary: Sri Mukunda dasa Gosvami observes that it is forbidden for a brahmana to sing any songs other than songs in praise of the Lord. –144-




Text 145:


(33) – atha samkirtanam

nama-lila-gunadinam uccair-bhasa tu kirtanam || 145 ||


       Translation: (33) Then, SINGING ALOUD:


Kirtanam or singing aloud is defined as singing the Name, Qualities and Events or Pastimes of the Lord Divine Life in loud voice. –145-


       Translator's note: The usual meaning of Sankirtanam as well as its derivative meaning is singing together or singing in congregation. Sri Rupa Gosvami, however, defines Sankirtanam as singing in a loud voice. –145-




Text 146:


tatra nama-kirtanam

yatha visnu-dharme:

krisneti mangalam nama yasya vaci pravartate |

bhasmi bhavanti rajendra maha-pataka-kotayah || 146 ||



       In Visnudharma Puranam we have the following addressed to king: "Oh king! The utterance of the holy Name "Krsna" has the effect of reducing to ashes millions and millions of sins of the gravest kind." –146-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami observes that as in the previous text 'Arcana' or 'worship' is considered as the principal spiritual efficacy of other subsidiary elements in Vaidhi Sadhana-Bhakti, so also here the super-excellence of the chanting of the Name being described, the excellence for spiritual values of other subsidiary elements has been emphasized. Here by mention, of the Name of Krsna, the other Names of Lord Visnu have also been referred to by implication. –146-




Text 147:


lila-kirtanam, yatha saptame: 56                

so ‘ham priyasya suhridah paradevataya lilakathastava nrisinha 1


anjas titarmy anugrinan gunavipramukto

durgani te pada-yugalaya hamsasangah || 147 ||




       In the Seventh Canto of the Bhagavatam, Prince Prahlada, addressing Lord Nrsimhadeva (Lord in the Form of the Lion-Man) says: "Oh Lord! I have taken shelter at Thy Feet, I am Thine favored servitor; I shall easily scale the insurmountable barriers of all the afflictions of life by virtue of association with the saintly devotees of Thyself, who having taken shelter at Thy Feet are free from the trials of Samsara or empirical life. Such association will make me conquer the attractions and aversions that lie at the root of Samsara. My freedom from the ills of life will enable me to the conquest of the bondage of the flesh. I shall chant the glory of Thy Divine Pastimes that have been sung by Brahma (The Creator of the Universe), and shall easily overcome the bondage of Samsara continuing to sing Thy glories who is my Supreme Deity and my Friend of the heart and my dearest Object of love." –147-


56 Bhagavatam, Canto VII, Chap. 9, sloka 18.



Text 148:


guna-kirtanam, yatha prathame: 57  

idam hi pumsas tapasah srutasya va svistasya suktasya ca buddhi dattayoh |

avicyuto ‘rthah kavibhir nirupito yad uttamahsloka-gunanuvarnanam || 148 ||




       In the First Canto of the Bhagavatam Sri Narada addressing Vyasadeva says: "Wise men have declared that all the fruits that came from the practice of austerities, reading of the Vedas, carefully performed Vedic sacrifices, properly pronounced revealed (mystic) syllables of the Vedas, realization of the knowledge of Brahman, and charities are an invariable consequence of singing the holy QUALITIES of Lord Hari of sacred fame. –148-


       Commentary: Mukunda dasa Gosvami observes that in the text ‘Avicyutah arthah' means 'akhanda Purusartha'. Dharma or moral artha or economy, and kama or sensuous values as well as moksa or liberation are partial Ends, i.e. 'khanda purusartha'! But Bhakti is ‘akhanda purusartha', i.e. purusartha or the Supreme End in its completeness and fullness without any segmentation or division. Though austerities (tapasya) etc. have no immediate consequence of Bhakti as their fruit, yet they conduce mediately to Bhakti as their fruit because of their association with offering to the Lord and other similar acts. In this way Bhakti has to be regarded as a fruit of austerities through intermediary associated processes. In the Seventh Canto of the Bhagavatam Prahlada addressing the Asura boys, i.e. the children of the atheists, says: "Charities, austerities, sacrifices, ablutions, and the performance of vows, etc. cannot please the Lord. It is only pure Bhakti that is capable of causing delight to the Lord. For the Lord all practices, other than, the practice of unalloyed Bhakti, are superfluous and useless.


       Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti observes that previously it has been staid in sloka 66 that even by renouncing the code of duties appropriate for oneself, one may attain fruition or fulfillment by Bhakti alone. Here it is added if a devotee has some liking for any particular cult, then his object will be attained in respect of the cult or cults he believes in bymeans of Bhakti. Wise men have said that dwelling on the transcendental Qualities of the Lord and emphasizing their great spiritual significance constitute the real essence of austerities and other practices. In the dictionary 'Medini-Kosa', 'artha' has been stated also as equivalent of 'hetu' or cause. Hence 'avichyntah arthah' in the text means that which is 'hetu' of 'avichuti' or separation from one's intrinsic end. In the Eleventh Canto of the Bhagavatam Lord Sri Krsna addressing Sri Uddhava says: "Whatever is attainable by karma or Vedic ritualism, austerities or tapasya, Jnana or knowledge, renunciation or tyaga and vairagya, practice of Yoga or meditation, charities or Dana, the duties of life in Varna-asrama-dharma and other means of attaining sreyah or good, My devotees by practicing Bhakti or Service unto Me alone easily attain all that. As the fruits of austerities etc. are realized by means of Bhakti, it goes without saying that the austerities etc. themselves must have succeeded in achieving their end. 'Lord Visnu has always to be meditated upon and never to allowed to go out of mind-these two prescriptions, one injunctive and the other prohibitive, are the foundation of all the injunctions and prohibitions laid down in the sacred books'. In fact, this statement establishes recollecting, i.e. meditating on the Lord as basis, and therefore constituting the governing principle of all the codes of the different religious sects. Therefore it is superfluous to speak of the austerities, etc. as commits under the same principle. All scriptural injunctions about austerities reading the Vedas, etc. have all their meaning or significance in Bhakti or Service to the Lord for His delight. This is why chanting the EULOGY of the Lord is the inseparable import or means of austerities and other similar practices. In fact, their dharma or codes of religious duties are only forms of various Services (Bhakti) to the Lord. In the Eleventh Canto of the Bhagavatam Lord Krsna addressing Uddhava says: "In the Vends Bhakti as worship of My Self has been taught, and when through the effect of time it disappeared from earth at the final thorough dissolutionof Cosmos I initiated Brahma, the Creator of a New World, into this lesson of Bhakti as the religion that appertains to or aniseed out of My Intrinsic Nature or Svarupa Sakti". From them words of the Lord it is quite obvious that the Vedas have the purport of teaching Bhakti as the true religion.

       Sri Madhusudana Sarasvati has also said that all scriptural declarations have for their purport and meaning the Lord Himself. Therefore, there being no dependence of Bhakti in karma or the way of Vedic ritualism, the definition of suddha Bhakti or pure services, and devotion as Guna-Kirtanam or singing the EULOGY of the Lord's transcendental Qualities (without reference to karma) cannot be regarded as being a definition vitiated by the fallacy of avyapti or being too narrow. If karma were declared to be a condition of Bhakti, then as being depended on karma, Suddha-Bhakti regarded as consisting in Guna-Kirtanam or singing of the Eulogy of the transcendental Qualities of the Lord will be vitiated by the fallacy of being a too narrow definition. –148-


57 Bhagavatam, Canto I, Chap. 5, sloka 22.111



Text 149:


(34) – atha japah

mantrasya sulaghuccaro japa ity abhidhiyate || 149 ||


       Translation: (34) Next, JAPA:


       Very very silent utterance of the Mantra is the revealed syllables of transcendental potency is called Japa or silent muttering. –149-




Text 150:


yatha padme:

krisnaya nama ity esa mantrah sarvartha-sadhakah |

bhaktanam japatam bhupa svarga-moksa-phala-pradah || 150 ||


       Translation: It is said in the Padma Puranam that the mystic ‘Krsnaya namah'  (Obeisance to Krsna) offers men all the values of life. It gives heaven and liberation to those devotees how are engaged in muttering this mantram silently. –150-




Text 151:


(35) – atha vijnaptih, yatha skande:

harim-uddisya yat kincit kritam vijnapanam gira |

moksadvarargalan moksastenaiva vihitatava  Iti || 151 ||


       Translation: Next VIJNAPTI or Forms of submissive Prayers:


       It is said in the Skanda Puranam: "Whatsoever you have placed by words before Lord Hari to make known to Him, such Vijnapti alone opens to you the gates of final liberation." -151-




Text 152:


samprarthanatmika dainyavodhika lalasamayi |

ity adir vividha dhiraih krisne vijnaptiririta || 152 ||


       Translation: The wise have describe Vijnapti or submission of prayers to Sri Krsna of manifold forms, such as, Samprarthanatmika, i.e. prayer with whole-hearted submission of mind, body and everything to the Lord, or Dainyavodhika, i.e. making known to Lord Krsna one's insignificance and worthlessness, or Lalasamayi, i.e. making known one's yearning for

 the personal service of the Lord. –152-


       Commentary: Sri Mukunda dasa, Gosvami observes that the term "Samprarthana" here means 'prayer to the Lord that one's mind and other organs of experience may always be engaged in the worship of the Lord." And ‘Lalasamayi Prarthana' means prayers for the service of the Lord in the way one desires to serve the Lord. The 'way one desires to serve the Lord' is however determined by the Nitya-Siddha-Bhaktas, i.e. eternally freed souls who are Associated Parts of the Supreme Lord, and their ways, which a mortal must follow in the wake of.

       Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti points out however that ‘Samparthana' i.e. here means prayer for the awakening of Rati, i.e. Bhava  (See Introduction under heading VIII) in one in whom it is yet not aroused, while "Lalasamayi Prarthana" means prayer for service of the Person of Lord Krsna as relished by the Ragatmikas or those Eternal Associates of the Lord for which a taste has already been generated in him. –152-




Text 153:


tatra samprarthanatmika

yatha padme:

yuvatinam yatha yuni yunanca yuvatau yatha |

mano ‘bhiramate tad van mano ‘bhiramatam tvayi || 153 ||


       Translation: An example of Samrarthanatmika Vijnapti:


       In the Padma Puranam it is stated as follows: "Let my mind be occupied with Thee, Oh Lord! Even, as minds of young men and women remain occupied with thoughts of their young lovers!" –153-




Text 154:


DAINYAVODHIKA, yatha tatraiva:

mat-tulyo nasti papatma naparadhi ca kascana |

parihare ‘pi lajja me kim vruve purusottama || 154 ||


       Translation: An example of Dainyavodhika Vijnapti, i.e. submission of prayer which is the essence of self-abasement: In the Padma Puranam we have-There is none who is more sunk in sin than myself nor is there any one who is more guilty of offenses than myself. Oh Thou Supreme Lord (Purusottama)!  I am ashamed even to say ‘Forgive me, my Lord! My sins and misdemeanor! What more can I say, Lord?' -154-



Text 155:



yatha sri narada pancaratre:

kada gambhiraya vaca sriya yukto jagatpate |

camara vyagrahastam mam evam kurv iti vaksyasi || 155 ||


       Translation: An example of Lalasamaya Vijnaptai i.e. submission of prayer which is of the nature of yearning:


       In the Narada-Pancaratra Sri Narada addressing the Lord says: "Oh Lord of the Universe! When wilt Thou, resting with Laksmi by Thy side, tell me with a grave voice, who am eagerly waiting ready with the fan of Camara in hand 'Oh Narada! Wave your fan in this manner?" –155-




Text 156:


yatha va:

kadaham yamuna-tire namani tava kirtayan |

udbaspah pundarikaksa racayisyami tandavam || 156 ||


       Translation: Or, there again: Also in Narada-Pancaratra we have Narada addressing the Lord as follows: "Oh Thou of lotus-like eyes! When shall I in tearful eyes start dancing wildly on the bank of the Yamuna singing Thy Holy Name?" –156-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami points out that Lalasamayi Prarthana does not apply to one in whom rati or Bhava-Bhakti or longing for serving Lord Krsna in the way His Eternal Associates serve Him has not yet arisen. As a matter of fact, Lalasamayi Prarthana has been distinguished previously from Samprarthanamayi Vijnapti in which Lalasa or real yearning is not in evidence yet. The example, therefore, illustrates Lalasamayi Vijnapti and ought to have come under the category of Raganuga-Bhakti, though Sri Rupa Gosvami makes a passing reference to it. –156-




Text 157:


(36) – atha stava-pathah:

prokta manisibhir gita-stavarajadayah stavah || 157 ||


       Translation: (36) Next, Reading of Hymn in praise of the Lord: Wise men mean by ‘Stava' the Gita and ‘Stavaraja'. –157-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami observes that the Gita is called 'Stava' because it describes the Glory and the Transcendental Greatness of the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna and ‘Stavaraja' refers to the Hymn in praise of the Lord, called 'Stavaraja' in the Gautamiya Tantra. –157-




Text 158:


yatha skande:

sri-krisna-stava-ratnaughair yesam jihva tv alankrita |

namasya muni-siddhanam vandaniya divaukasam || 158 ||


       Translation: It is said in Skanda Puranam that those whose tongue has been adorned with the gems of Hymns of Sri Krsna become adorable and praiseworthy by munis (saints), Siddhas (those who have attained supernatural powers) and even by the gods. –158- 



Text 159:


narasimhe ca:

stotraih stavas ca devagre yah stauti madhusudanam |

sarva-papa-vinirmukto visnulokam-avapnuyat || 159 ||


       Translation: In the Nrsinha Puranam it is said that whosoever sings prayers in praise of Lord Madhusudana (The Destroyer of demon Madhu) with Stotras and Stavas in front of the Arca-Vigraha of Visnu in a temple becomes free from all sins and attains to the Realm of Visnu. –159-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami observes that even though there is nor essential difference between 'Stotra' and 'Stava', yet a difference must be acknowledged in so far as 'Stotra' means Hymns composed by some predecessor in praise of the Lord, while a 'Stava' is one that is a spontaneous outpouring of the worshiper himself. 'Stotra' in other words, is a Hymn that is another's composition that one reads for the pleasure of the Lord, whole 'Stava' is one's outpouring of the feelings of the heart. Despite this,  however, in the text both 'Gita' and 'Stavaraja' have been described as "Stava" because no other suitable means of evoking one's spontaneous feelings is available.

       Sri Mukunda dasa Gosvami, however, distinguishes 'Stotra', and 'Stava' in a diametrically opposite way. According to Sri Mukunda dasa, ‘Stava' is another's composition which one repeats, while 'Stotra' is one's own creation of Hymns in praise of the Lord. Sri Mukunda dasa supports his interpretation by quoting from the Eleventh Canto of the Bhagavatam. Lord  Sri Krsna addressing Sri Uddhava says: "A bhakta (devotee) shall seek My delight and pleasure through reading good, bad and indifferent 'Stavas' mentioned in the Puranas and also offering prayers by 'Stotras' of his own heart's composition, and should prostrate himself at the innermost door of My temple with the prayer 'Lord! Mayest Thou be pleased'". –159-




Text 160:


(37) – atha naivedyasvado, yatha padme:

naivedya-mannam tulasi-vimisram visesatah pada-jalena siktam |

yo ‘snati nityam purato murareh prapnoti yajnayuta koti-punyam || 160 ||


       Translation: (37) Naivedyasvada or tasting the EATABLES offered to the Deity of Visnu in a temple:

       It is stated in the Pandma Puranam that one, who dally eats the offered Naivedya (rice, fruits, etc. eatables offered to the Lord) along with Tulasi, specially consecrated with water after washing the Feet of the Lord, in front of Lord Murari, outside the sanctum sanctorum, attains the merit of performing thousands of Vedic sacrifices and rituals. -160-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami points out that 'puratah' here means 'not in front of the Lord inside the temple itself but outside the sanctum sanctorum', because it has previously been stated in connection with offenses in respect of seva or services at the time of worship that it is forbidden to eat in front of the Deity. Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti points out, however, that chewing of betel-leaves has previously been for forbidden as an offense, but not every form of feasting. Hence it is no offense to honor Naivedya (offered food) before the Deity in a temple. –160-




Text 161:


(38) – atha padyasvado

yatha tatraiva:

na danam na havir yesam svadhyayo na surarcanam |

tepi padodakam pitva prayanti paramam gatim || 161 ||


       Translation: (38) Padyasvada or drinking the water used for bathing the Deity and washing the Feet of the Deity:


       It is mentioned in the Padma Puranam that even those who do not give charities, perform oblations, read the Vedas or worship the gods, can attain the highest End only by drinking the water with which the Feet of the Lord has been washer in a temple. –161-




Text 162:


(39) – atha dhupa-sairabhyam

yatha hari-bhakti-sudhodaye:

aghranam yadd harer datta-dhupocchistasya sarvatah |

tad-bhavavyaladastanam nasyam nasyam karma visapaham || 162 ||


       Translation: (39) Dhupa-Saurabhyam or smelling the scent of the incense which has been offered to the Deity of Vishnu: Hari-Bhaktivilasa declares that smelling of the scent of incense that has been offered to the Lord and enjoyed by Him is the surest antidote to the earthliness of this world with which people are smitten, as though smitten by a serpent! And such smelling is the true functioning of the olfactory sense. –162-




Text 163:


atha malya-saurabhyam, yatha tantre:

praviste nasika-randre harer nirmalya saurabhe |

sadyo vilayamayati papa-panjara-bandhanam || 163 ||


       Translation: Malya-Saurabham or scent of garlands offered to the Lord: It is stated in the Tantra that if the sweet scent of the flower garlands that have been offered two the Vigraha of Visnu enters the nostril, all sins like encaged birds in an aviary are immediately destroyed. –163-




Text 164:


agastya-samhita yanca:

aghranam gandha-puspader arcitasya tapodhana |

visuddhih syad anantasya ghranasye habhidhiyate || 164 ||


       Translation: Again in the Agastya-samhita we have: "Oh blessed sage! It is well known in the world that smelling the sweet scent of the flowers, flower-garlands, incense, etc. offered at the time of worship of Lord Anantadeva by entering into the nostrils purifies the olfactory organ of the individual. –164-




Text 165:


(40 )– atha sri-murteh sparsanam

yatha visnu-dharmottare:

spristva visnor adhisthanam pavitrah sraddhyanvitah |

papa bandhair vinirmuktah sarvan kaman avapnuyat || 165 ||


       Translation: (40) Touching the Sri Murti (Deity of Visnu): It is stated in the Visnudharmottara that a person who is pure and has a firm faith in Sri Murti, is freed from all sins and attains every desired end by touching the Srimurti or Vigraha of Lord Visnu. –165-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami observes that here the efficacy of touching the Srimurti (Deity in the temple) of Lord Visnu is applicable to those who possess the eligibility of so touching any Srimurti. –165-




Text 166:


(41) – atha sri-murter darsanam

yatha varahe:

vrindavane tu govindam ye pasyanti vasudhare |

na te yamapuram yanti yanti punya-kritam gatim || 166 ||


       Translation: (41) LOOKING AT THE SRI MURTI: In the Varaha Puranam Lord Varahadeva addressing Mother Earth says: " O Mother Earth! Those who see Sri Govinda at Vrndavana do not go to the gate of Yama, i.e. death's door or hell, but attain the

fruition of pious people". –166-


       COMMENTARY: Sri Jiva Gosvami commenting on the above verse observes that Sri Rupa Gosvami, the author, having described the excellence and efficacious of seeing all the various Forms of the Deity or Vigraha of Lord Visnu, here specifically mentions, being overwhelmed by feelings of devotion to the Lord of his own choice, the special significance of the Supreme Lord Himself in person manifest in the Arca-Vigraha of Sri Govindadeva. Here 'attain the end of pious people' refers to the supreme end of all pious activities, which is nothing else but pure Bhakti only. In the First Canto of the Bhagavatam Sri Suta Gosvami addressing Sri Saunaka and other munis says: "The highest religion of all people is Bhakti or loving services to the Transcendent Godhead- Bhakti which is causeless and unrestricted by Maya and which unfolds the innate functioning of the sleeping soul." Therefore Bhakti is the Real End of all pious acts, and hence by seeing the Vigraha of Sri Govindadeva in Vrndavana one attains Bhakti as its fruit.

       Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti points out that in order to make the earthly minded inclined to the way of Bhakti, Sri Rupa Gosvami has mildly said that only shall attain the ends of pious persons by looking at the Vigraha of Sri Govindadeva in Vrndavana; but in fact Bhava-Bhakti or Rati in Lord Govinda is the foremost End for the desireless devotees, and this Sri Cakravarti observes, has been subsequently explained by the author Sri Rupa Gosvami himself.


       Translator's note: There are Three Presiding Deities, viz. Sri Madanamohana, Sri Govinda and Sri Gopinatha, in Gaudy Vaisnavism, who have won the hearts of followers of Sri Caitanya. These Three Deities are also the Presiding Lords of (1) Sambandha-Jnana, i.e. Knowledge of the eternal relation between the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna and the individual finite self, (2) of Abbidheya or Means to the End, and (3) Prayojana or Final End, which is Prema, respectively. Sri Caitanya entrusted Sri Sanatana Gosvami to write authoritatively on the Concepts of God or Isvara, the individual soul or Jiva, the Jagat of the manifested phenomenal world, and Maya or the External Potency of Lord Sri Krsna, and their interrelationships i.e. (i) relation between God and the finite self, (ii) relation between two finite selves, (iii) relation between God and the phenomenal World, (iv) relation between two phenomenal objects, and (v) relations between the cit Jiva-atma and an acit or inanimate phenomenal object. Sri Sanatana by his writing showed that Sri Madananmohana was the Presiding Lord of these five fold inter relationship or Sambandha.  Similarly, initiated by Sri Caitanya Sri Rupa Gosvami declared that in the esoteric conception of Abhidheya unalloyed or pure Bhakti is the Vigraha or Arca to the realization of the eternal relationship that exists in the Supreme Lord Krsna the finite self or Jiva and that Lord Govinda is the Presiding Lord of Abhideya. Sri Sanatana Gosvami installed installed Vigraha or Arca of Sri Madanamohana in Vrndavana, who was the eternal Lord of his heart's choice, while Sri Rupa Gosvami made the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna manifest in His Arca-Form as Sri Govinda in Vrndavana. Both the Gosvamis had some rich devotees to erect two magnificent Temples in Vrndavana, dedicated to Lord Madanamohana and Lord Govinda respectively. Of all the temples of present Vrndavana the temple of Sri Madanamohana is the oldest, followed by the temple Sri Govinda, which is the finest temple in the whole of Northern India. It was a massive temple of seven-storied height; the topmost four stories were demolished by Aurangzeb in the sixteenth century.

       It is necessary to mention here that the conception of the Arca-Vigraha of Visnu (or Sri Krsna or all the Avataras or Divine Descents of Lord Visnu) is not correctly understood by the ignorant people, and they very often confuse Them with idolatry or stone-worship. It is an utterly misconceived notion about the worship of the Arca-Vigraha of Lord Visnu by a Vaisnava. According to the philosophy of Sri Caitanya, the concept of the Absolute Godhead is conceived, on the basis of the authentic Scriptures, in Five Different Forms, simultaneously co-existing and identical, viz. (1) Svayam-rupa Krsna, the Supreme Divinity, who has an eternal Spiritual Two armed All-beauteous Form of Sat-Cit-Ananda in Braja, who is the Cause of all causes and who is the Lord of all lords, who is the Origin and Beginning of everything else, exists in His Own Form as He is; (2) secondly, the Same Svayam-Rupa Krsna projects Himself, out of His Own Supreme Prerogative and inconceivable Potency, into Manifold Bodies, called Tadekatma-Rupa Krsna or Svayam-Prakasa or Self-Manifest, i.e. Many Bodies simultaneously manifest, each Form identical with the Original Form of Svayam-Rupa Krsna, as was done at the time of the Rasa-dance (One Body in-between each two Gopis of a congregation of hundreds of Gopis) or at the time of Marriage of Sixteen-thousand one hundred and eight Queens of Dvaraka; (3) thirdly, Vaibhava or the Many Avataras or Divine Descents of the Svayam-Rupa Krsna, such as, the Three Purusa-Avataras, Three Guna-Avataras, Four Yuga-Avataras, Twenty-five Lila-Avataras, Fourteen, Manvantara-Avataras, innumerable Satyasesa-Avataras and Bhavavesa-Avatas, etc.; (4) fourthly, the same Svayam-Rupa Krsna as Antaryami or the Indwelling Lord of every individual soul; (5) fifthly, Arca or the Vigraha or Figure of the Lord taking His own initiative to be manifest before the fallen and self-forgetful souls through the medium of the  Acarya or Spiritual Masters or a freed great saint. The Arca-Vigraha apparently looks like an idol, but is essentially the Fifth Form of the Supreme Divinity, graciously manifest in this world out of His infinite mercy and inconceivable Power for the fallen people who are too much given to gross earthly phenomena. The categorical difference between the worship of the Arca-Vigraha of Visnu and idol-worship must be clearly understood by one who takes to the way of preliminary practices of pure Bhakti. Apparently two similar looking objects need not be identical-a glow-worm and a spark are not same though they appear to be so to an ignorant child. In the same manner the Arca-Vigraha of Lord Visnu worshipped in a temple is absolutely different from idolatry. –166-






Text 167:


(42) – aratrika-darsanam

yatha skande:

kotayo brahma-hatyanam agamyagama kotayah |

dahaty aloka matrena visnoh saratrikam mukham || 167 ||






       It is mentioned in the Skanda Puranam that the very fact of seeing the Face of the Vigraha of Lord Visnu glowing with the light of the lamp which is waved before the Lord at the time of Wave-offering of lights, etc. reduces to ashes all sins committed, sins so heinous as taking the lives of millions of brahmanas and millions of incestuous acts. –167-


       Commentary: Sir Jiva comments that here ‘Wave offering' refers to all the various Arca-Vigrahas of the Godhead. –167-




Text 168:



yatha bhavisyottare:

ratha-stham ye niriksante kautikenapi kesavam |

devatanam ganah sarve bhavanti svapacadayah || 168 ||


       Translation: Witnessing CELEBRATIONS of the Events of the Life of the Lord: It is said in the Bhavisya Puranam that not for speak of others, even if a Candala, who lives on dog's flesh, sees Lord Kesava on the chariot on the occasion of His Celebrations out of simple curiosity, he attains the status of the associate companion of the gods.  –168-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami and Sri Cakravarti hold that here ‘of the gods' means 'of the Parsadas of Lord Visnu'. –168-




Text 169:


adi-sabdena puja-darsanam

yatha agneye:

pujitam pujyamanam va yah pasyed-bhaktito harim |

sraddhaya modaman astu so ‘pi yoga-phalam labhet || 169 ||


       Translation: The word 'Adi' in the text also includes witnessing WORSHIP: We have it in the Agni Puranam- One also who sees cheerfully and with a firm faith and devotion, the ceremony of the worship of Lord Hari or the Lord being worshipped attains all the fruits of the act of worship as according to the declarations of the Pancaratra. –169-




Text 170:


(43) – atha sravanam

sravanam nama-carita-gunadinam srutir-bhavet || 170 ||


       Translation: (43) Sravana or LISTENING or AURAL RECEIVING: Sravana or LISTENING is defined as touch of the ears by the Lord's NAME, or by the EVENTS OF HIS LIFE, HIS OUALITIES, etc. –170-



Text 171:


tatra nama-sravanam

yatha garude:

samsara-sarpa-dasta-nasta-cestaika-bhesajam |

krisneti vaisnavam mantram srutva mukto bhaven narah || 171 ||


       Translation: AURAL RECEPTION OF THE LORD'S NAME: It is mentioned in the Garuda Puranam that a person who is fatally smitten by the serpent-like worldly concerns and is beyond any hope of survival has the only sure life-giving infallible remedy, viz. listening to the Vaisnava mystic syllables ‘Krsna'.-171-




Text 172:


caritra-sravanam, yatha caturthe: 58    

tasmin mahan-mukharita madhubhic-caritra-

piyusa-sesa-saritah partah sravanti |

ta ye pibanty avitriso nripa gadha-karnais

tan na sprisanty asana trid-bhaya-soka-mohah || 172 ||


       Translation: LISTENING TO THE EVENTS OF THE LIFE OF THE LORD: In the Fourth Canto of the Bhagavatam the great sage Narada tells King Pracinavarhi: "Oh king! In the assembly of the Bhagavatas or holy saints who have realized themselves and attained freedom, the richest nectar which is the very essence of Lord Krsna flows from the mouths of such saints like streams in all directions; those who are thirsty for such nectar and drink it in ardently with the goblet of open ears, are never touched by hunger, thirst fear, miseries or infatuation." –172-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami observes that 'nectar of discourse on Lord Hari from the mouths of great saints' means that the nectar of the Character of the Lord apparently sounds like 'words' in the mouth of satins, but the fact is that such nectar is expressive of itself accepting the mouth of saint as a medium, in it is itself self-luminous.

       Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti however explains it in the sense that 'discourse on Lord Hari' manifests itself by making the saints themselves, garrulous. Such is the nature of Hari-Katha!-172-


58 Bhagavatam, Canto IV, Chap. 29, sloka 41.



Text 173:


guna-sravanam, yatha dvadase:    59                 

yas tuttamahsloka-gunanuvadah sangiyate ‘bhiksnam amangala-ghnah |

tam eva nityam srinuyad abhiksnam krisne ‘malam bhaktim abhipsamanah || 173 ||


       Translation: LISTENING T0 THE LORD'S QUALITITES: In the Twelfth Canto of the Bhagavatam great Sukadeva Gosvami addressing King Pariksita says: "King! The fortunate person who desires unalloyed Bhakti to the Feet of the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna should constantly and daily listen to the singing of the eulogies of the Lord of highest fame, which destroys all calamities." –173-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami commenting on the above verse, says: "Here 'singing in praise of Uttama-sloka (Krsna)' includes all Avataras and Bhagavatas, i.e. Eternal Associates of the Lord or God-realized saints. A devotee should daily and constantly cherish the eager interest in listening to the discourses on the Supreme Lord, and the supreme effect of such listening is highest or Uttama-Bhakti in Sri Krsna, Son of Nanda. –173-


59  Bhagavatam, Canto XII, Chapter 3, sloka 15.113



Text 174:


(44) atha tat-kripeksanam, yatha dasame:   60 

tat te ‘nukampam su-samiksamano bhunjana evatma-kritam vipakam |

hrid-vag-vapurbhir vidadhan namas te jiveta yo mukti-pade sa daya-bhak || 174 ||


       Translation: (44) OBSERVING THE GRACE OF THE LORD:


       In the Tenth Canto of the Bhagavatam, Brahma while engaged in the praise of Lord Sri Krsna addresses Him as follows: "Whosoever while going through with detachment his self-earned happiness and the suffering of life contemplates all his joys and sufferings as a gift of Thy infinite mercy or compassion to creatures, and so contemplating does obeisances to Thee in mind, body and speech, qualifies for association with Thee, who art the Bestower of mukti or liberation." –174-


       Commentary: Here Sri Jiva Gosvami observes that in the text two different acts of devotion have been stated, viz. gazing at or looking upon one's joys and sorrows as the Grace of the merciful Lord, and at the same time doing obeisances in mind, body and speech. Though they are different acts, the meaning is that they bear the same fruit, i.e. Bhakti. In the text 'Muktipada', 'Mukti' means the ninth object ‘pada' means 'Asraya' or the Source and Support of this ninth Padartha, who is Lord Sri Krsna the Tenth Object.


       Translator's note: The term 'padartha' in its ordinary meaning signifies 'what a pada or name refers to or means'. In other words, Padartha means nameable, and therefore the Padarthas in the plural will mean 'ultimate namable'. Namable is regarded in Indian philosophy as equivalent of 'knowable'. For example, Padartha is defined as padarthah pramiti visayah (Sapta-padarthi). Therefore the ultimate nameables are the same as the ultimate knowables or the ultimate objects of knowables. There are various classy of the Padarthas in the different schools of Indian philosophy. The Vaisesikas, for example, are sapta-padartha-vadins, recognizing as they do only seven kinds of ultimate objects. The Naiyayikas are sodasa-padartha-vadins, recognizing sixteen different kinds of knowables. The Carbaka-Mimamsakas (the Prabhakaras) recognize eight different kinds of objects, while in Samkhya the different kinds of objects, are as many as twenty-five padarthas. Here the Padarthas are in reference to the Tatva-Jnana or knowledge of the Truth that is involved in the realization of Mukti or liberation. The text refers here to Bhagavatam Canto II, Chapter 10, and slokas 1 and 2, where the attainment of Mukti or liberation, the ninth object, it regarded as presupposing the knowledge of eight other objects as preparatory thereto, viz. (1) Sarga or Creation, (2) Visarga or Dissolution, (3) Sthana or the place of each Creation in the system of the created objects, (4) Posana or nourishment or spiritual food, which is the Lord's kindness and mercy to the creatures, (5) Manvantara or the different forms of spiritual practices followed by the great sages like Manu in the different Cycles in accordance with the Lord's Wishes, (6) Uti, which means the urges or drives that characterize the creatures that God creates, (7) Isanukatha or delineation of the character and deeds of the various Avataras of Lord Visnu, i.e. His Manifestations, and of the devotees known for their devotion to the Lord, (8) Nirodha it restriction of Creation when the Lord withdraws His Eyes from the created world and closing them remains absorbed in the mystical sleep of Yoga; at that time the creatures with their sense-organs completely inactivated go to sleep, merged in the Person of the Lord. (9) Mukti is liberation of the Jiva or the finite self by destruction of the nescience which makes him turn away from the Lord and thus become entangled in the toils of earthly life and bringing him back to the Realm of the Lord by making him turn Godwards. The Asraya or Source and Support of this ninth padartha Mukti is the TENTH PADARTHA, which is the LORD HIMSELF.


       Commenting on the above verse Sri Visvanatha Cakaravarti observes that one attains the Lord only by means of Bhakti discarding all other methods of religious practices. And in answer to the question: ‘What forth of Bhakti and its practice can make one eligible for the attainment of the Lord?' The reply is given in the particular slokas of the Bhagavatam. Further in reply, Brahma said that economic and other earthly values are not the real purpose of religion. In the words of Sri Suta Gosvami in Canto I, Chapter 2, sloka 9, it is stated that heavenly pleasures are only automatic secondary ends of Bhakti, and sufferings are inevitable results of not following the path of true religion. A beginner of the practices of Bhakti should remain content with the thoughts that his enjoyments and sufferings are the fruits of his own actions and should be endured with submission and patience as blessings of the Lord Himself. A devotee thinks that as the father's endearment or chastisements are all for the benefit of the child, so also the Lord alone knows best which is good and which is harmful for His devotees. "My Lord knows what is good for me, and I do not know what is truly good for me", so thinks a genuine devotee. In the Fourth Canto, Chapter 20, sloka 31, King Prithu addressing Lord Sri Krsna says: "Lord! As a father looks after the good of his children, so mayest Thou look after me for my real good!" Thus thinking, he who smilingly endures all the, pleasures and pains of life equally as the Lord's blessings and surrenders to Him with all his mind, body and speech, becomes eligible for serving the Lord, which is the supreme purpose of life, and concurrently also attains the secondary result of liberation or mukti. As the right of a son to the properties of his father is derived from the very fact of his being his father's son, so also Bhakti is the natural cause of one's being blessed by the Lord by offering him His Services. In the Tenth Canto, Chapter 87, sloka 107 of the Bhagavatam in their prayers to the Lord the Srutis said: "Lord! A life becomes worth awhile if it be devoted to Thy services, or else what good is there in inhaling and exhaling like a bellows (blowing machine) of a blacksmith?" –174-


60  Bhagavatam, Canto X, Chapter 14, sloka 8.



Text 175:


(45) atha smritih

yatha katham cin-manasa sambandhah smritir ucyate || 175 ||


       Translation: (45) REMEMBRANCE: Association of the mind with the Lord by whatsoever way is called ‘Remembrance'. –175-



Text 176:


yatha visnu-purane

smrite sakala-kalyana-bhajanam yatra jayate |

purusantam ajam nityan brajami saranam harin || 176 ||


       Translation: It is said in the Visnu Puranam: "May I take refuge in that Unborn, Ever-existent and Eternal Lord Hari, whose remembrance makes man entitled to all kinds of bliss." –176-




Text 177:


yatha ca padme

prayane caprayane ca yan nama smaratam nrinam |

sadhyo nasyati papaugho namas tasmai cid-atmane || 177 ||


       Translation: We have it again in the Padma Puranam: "I make my obeisances to that All-conscious Supreme Person, whose remembrance in life and in death immediately destroys all sins of men". –177-


       Commentary: Commenting on the above verse Sri Jiva Gosvami points out that the excellence of the remembrance of the Lord at the last moment of death has been described in sloka 10 of the Eighth Chapter of the Grita. Addressing Sri Arjuna, Lord Sri Krsna says: "One who at the time of death unperturbed fixes his Prana (life-breath) in between the eyebrows and recalls My Memory, who am the Supreme Person, is blessed with devotion to Me in the next world".  –177-




Text 178:


(46) atha dhyanam

dhyanam rupa-guna-krida-sevadeh susthu cintanam || 178 ||


       Translation: MEDITATION: Proper and intense contemplation of the Beauty, Form, Qualities, Sports, Pastimes, and Services  of the Supreme Godhead is called Dhyanam or Meditation or Communion with the Lord. –178-




Text 179:


tatra rupa-dhyanam

yatha narasimhe

bhagavac carana-dvandva-dhyanam nirdvandvamiritam |

papino ‘pi prasangena vihitam suhitam param || 179 ||




It is mentioned in the Nrsinha Puranam that meditation of the Two Feet of the Supreme Person of the Godhead normalizes all opposites, such as heat and cold, enjoyments and sufferings, etc. If a sinner even casually meditates on the Lord the Scriptures assert such contemplation to be the source of the highest bliss. –179-


       Commentary: Sri Mukunda dasa observes that if a sinful person, i.e. one who cherishes evil thoughts, perchance gains any little favorable association with the meditation of the Lord, that itself becomes a source of his attaining Bhakti which is the only way to God-realization. –179-



Text 180:


GUNA DHYANAM, yatha visnudharme

ye kurbvanti sada bhaktya gunanusmaranam hareh |

praksina-kalausaughaste pravisanti hareh padam || 180 ||




It is said in the Visnudharma that those who always meditate on the Qualities of Lord Hari with a devotional heart are freed from the bondage of all sins, and enter into the Realm of Hari. –180-



Text 181:


krida dhyanam

yatha padme

sarva-madhurya-sarani sarvad bhutamayani ca |

dhyayan hares caritrani lalitani vimucyate || 181 ||




It is said in the Padma Puranam that man can easily swim across the ocean of the world should he meditate on the inordinately sweet, preternaturally wonderful and supremely mind-fascinating Pastimes of the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna. -181-



Text 182:


SEVA DHYANAM, yatha puranantare

manasenopacarena paricarya harim sada |

pare van-manasa ‘gamyam tam saksat pratipedire || 182 ||




       Elsewhere in the Puranam it has been stated that some devotees have attained Lord Hari in Person, who is beyond all mundane expressions and mental grasp in imagination, by constantly serving the Lord with mind-create ingredients of service.


       Commentary:  Sri Jiva Gosvami observes that there is an anecdote in the Brahmavaivarta Puranam about the glories and importance of 'mental service'. A brahmana once lived in Pratisthanapura. Though very poor, he had composure of his mind even in adverse circumstances, believing that man must suffer or enjoy the consequences of his own karma. This simple minded brahmana once heard in an assemblage of superior brahmanas that one can follow Vaisnava religion even with one's inner thinking. Thereafter he started practicing this method. The poor brahmana started taking bath daily in the Godavari river, and after finishing his daily ablutions as are prescribed for a brahmana used to take his seat in a lonely place, and composing his mind by controlling his breath mentally used to install the Srimurti of Lord Hari (Narayana) in his heart, and mentally thinking himself as wearing sacred clothes and in mind tightly fastening his skirt used to prostrate himself before the Deity; and after mentally fetching water of the Ganga and the Yamuna in golden and silver pitchers, mentally thought of bathing the Lord and should mentally offer Him most delicious food and other ingredients of worship, offer garlands etc. and complete waving of lamps, incense, water in conch-shell, fan, etc. and finish such daily mental worship by blowing the conch (all mentally of course) .All this he would do as would be done by a great and opulent king, and was very happy. After a long span of time of such mental worship of the Lord, the poor brahmana one day prepared Payesa with fine rice cow's milk and sugar candy (in his mind) and poured it in a garden plate, and before he would offer same to the Lord he wanted to examine how hot it was, and thus thinking he dipped his finger into the hot Payesa and he felt his finger burnt and the consequent burning pain. He thought the Payesa had become unholy and that it could not any more be offered to the Lord! With this painful thought, his meditation was broken, and the brahmana saw that his physical finger was actually swollen and he felt pain. At this Lord Narayana in Vaikuntha smiled! Sri Laksmi was surprised as to why the Lord smiled! And when asked, Lord Narayana sent His celestial car and brought the devoted brahmana to Vaikuntha and told Sri Laksmi all about him, and blessed him with an eternal seat by the side of the Lord Himself. –182-




Text 183:


(47 )atha DASYAM--

dasyam karmarpanam tasya kainkaryam api sarvatha || 183 ||


       Translation: (47) Next, SERVANTHOOD:


Offering of all activities or karma to the Lord, and serving the Lord in all possible ways (as a servant does) is called Dasya or Servanthood. –183-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami observes that mentioning here of offering one's activities or Karma (Karma-arpana) means servantship alone. Dedication of Karma may also refer to actions, which are same as are also offered by others, while Kainkarya means one's personal services rendered to the Lord. The feeling of considering oneself as a persona attendant on the Lord is Kainkarya or servanthood. It has been stated in the Itihasa-samuccaya: "One who has the feeling 'I am an attendant of Lord Vasudeva' as a result of one's spiritual practices for thousands of births, becomes competent to save mankind." In the Bhagavatam, Canto X, Chapter 81, sloka 36 Sri Sridama Vipra says: "May I cherish forever and at every birth feelings of intimate friendship (Sauharda), companionship (Sakhya), friendly attitude (Maitri) and servantship (Dasya) for Sri Krsna, the Lord of Dvaraka!" Here dasya refers, says Sridhara Svami, to 'servanthood'. Servanthood consists in rendering services to the Lord-it is waiting upon or attendance on the Lord and worshipping Him. Therefore there is hardly any difference between offering of activities or Karma (Karma-arpana) and attendance on the Lord (Kainkarya) and rendering services to Him.

       Sri Mukunda dasa, Gosvami explains 'offering of all actions or karma' as dedication of one's normal and natural activities, such as, eating, etc. and also offering of the various features and ingredients of worship, and 'Kainkarya' as one's being engaged in the service of the Lord with the inner feeling of considering oneself as an attendant of the Lord.


       Translator's note: The slokas that follow require some preliminary explanation without which the meaning may not be clear to the reader. Just as the Paribhasika word ‘Bhava' has been used by the Gaudiyas in two aspects, i.e. first as the beginning of Prema-Bhakti (Bhava-Bhakti) and again as the culmination of Prema through the states of Sneha, Mana, Pranaya, Raga, Anuraga, to Bhava and Maha-Bhava (See Introduction), so also the Paribhasika word ‘Dasya' both in the sense of a form of Sadhana-Bhakti and also as a form of the Primary Sthayi-Bhava or permanent attitude as Dasya-Rati. The word "Dasya" as it appears in the succeeding slokas is used in the sense of Sadhana-Bhakti, i.e. as preparatory practice, which is matured into Bhava-Bhakti. Thus Dasya as Sadhana-Bhakti means some deeds of service to the Lord as becomes a servant devoted to the Master. Sri Rupa Gosvami however mentions here Sridhara Svami's use of Dasya-Sadhana-Bhakti as being of two varieties though Sri Rupa Gosvami himself does not agree with Sridhara Svami in this respect. According to Sridhara Svami, Dasya Sadhana-Bhakti may be either in the form of offering one's activities of every day life (barring, of course, those that are considered as unclean) to the Lord or as reciting the Name of the Lord, repeating the Mantras or revealed syllables or meditating on the Qualities of the Lord or the Life's Events of the Lord. Sri Rupa Gosvami holds, however, that Dasya-Sadhana-Bhakti does not consist in offering the daily activities or even the duties one has to perform because of one's station in life to the Lord. Dasya-Sadhana-Bhakti would not be Bhakti, pure and unadulterated, if it were mixed up with karma. Therefore Dasya-Sadhana-Bhakti means those special acts of Vaisnavas, such as, repeating the Mantras, chanting the Name of the Lord, meditating on the Events of the Life of the Lord, which constitute Sadhana-Bhakti as Dasya, Dasya as  Service means serving the Lord in these specific forms. –183-




Text 184:


tatra adyam yatha skande

tasmin samarpitam karma svabhavikam apisvare |

bhaved bhagavato dharmas tat-karma kimutarpitam || 184 ||




       Translation: So the ADYA, i.e. the first of the two forms of Dasya, viz. dedication or offering of one's actions:


       It is said in the Skanda Puranam that when offering of man's daily normal activities, such as eating etc., to the Lord is reckoned as Bhagavata-dharma, there is hardly any need to add that services to the Lord at the time of worship must be Bhagavata-dharma, i.e. religion in relation to the Lord. –184-


       Commentary: Sri Mukunda dasa Gosvami says that 'Bhagavata-dharma' in the text, in the text here means that 'service' as a way to the attainment of the Lord is 'dharma', and 'tat karma' means 'telling beads', meditation, etc. Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti says that if dedication of man's daily normal activities to the Lord were Bhagavata-dharma, what wonder is there at singing and listening to the praise and glories of the Lord for His delight should be called Bhagavata-dharma? –184-




Text 185:


karma svabbhavikam bhadram japa-dhyanarcanadi ca |

itidam dvividham krisne vaisnavair dasyam arpitam || 185 ||


       Translation: If both normal good activities or arma and also telling of beads, meditation, worship, etc. (at the time of worship of the Deity in the temple) be offered to Sri Krsna by Vaisnavas, then it is called Dasya. –185-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami comments that here in the text the desired Dasya is of two kinds, viz. first, the desirable actions as prescribed for the four classes of Varna (one born with the qualities and activities as according to one's actions in previous life as Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya and Sudra) and the four stations of life or Asrama (according to one's temperament, naturalinclinations and fitness or competency relative to one's stage of life as Brahmacari, Grhastha, Vanaprastha and Sannyasi or Yati); but such karma of the Four Varnas and Four Asramas must, be excluded which are unacceptable according to the prohibitions of the Scriptures, for offering to the Lord; and secondly, Karma here includes telling of beads, inaudible muttering of the revealed syllables and the Name of the Lord, meditation, arcana or worship in the temple etc. If these two forms of normal karma and telling beads, meditation etc. is offered to Sri Krsna by a Vaisnava, then it is called Dasya.

       Sri Mukunda dasa Gosvami points out, however, that here 'normal actions' mean eating, sleeping, etc. which are natural and good actions of individual Vaisnava; but normal actions which are unwholesome, such as cleansing of teeth or washing one's feet or going to the privy, etc. must be excluded from desirable daily natural actions of an individual Vaisnava to be offered to the Lord and must not be called Dasya. But the daily prescribed and prohibited karmas are indeed not wholesome, because in the First Canto of the Bhagavatam, in Chapter 5, sloka 12, sage Narada addressing Sri Vyasadeva says: "When restraining ones senses, practices that bear liberation or moksa as fruit, or every unqualified knowledge do not appear in all their beauties if they be devoid of devotion to Lord Visnu and if they be not offered to Him, how can Karmas or actions done with the object of reaping fruits there from, followed by enjoyments or sufferings, or Karmas which are prohibited be wholesome if they be not dedicated for the Lord for His acceptance? How can such Karma of worldly-minded and Godless person purify the dirt of his heart?" Again in the Eleventh Canto of the Bhagavatam in Chapter 20, sloka 26, Lord Sri Krsna tells Uddhava: "The Scriptures have laid down the injunctions and prohibitions for enjoyments and sufferings of the people of the Four Varnas and Four Asrama's in order gradually to turn them astray from their natural attachment for earthly values of life", that is to say, the very tendency towards an attachment to worldliness and pleasures is the impurity of the heart. But such normal inclination of an individual cannot suddenly be stopped. Hence ‘this one should do' and ‘this one should not do'-such prescriptions and prohibitions of the Scriptures are meant slowly to curb the tendency for worldliness and gradually to bring one round the path of detachment and make one turn to God. Therefore, if the daily duties of life were offered to God, then such karma can be said to be satvika Karma, but not Dasya Sadhana-Bhakti. In the Bhagavatam Canto XI, Chapter 25, sloka 23, Lord Krsna tells Uddhava: "Oh Uddhava! If one in one's station of life offers one's daily obligatory and optional karma to Me without hankering after any fruit there from then such Karma is satvika Karma; it is rajas Karma if it be offered to Me with the object of attaining fruits, while it is Tamasa Karma which is performed with malicious motives and not offered to Me." Sri Mukunda dasa Gosvami further points out that by honest, and rigid performance of one's daily Karma as prescribed in accordance with one's Varna and Asrama and offering them to the Lord one can attain only knowledge about the Lord, but not Bhakti. In support of this statement Sri Mukunda dasa further quotes from the Bhagavatam, Canto XI, Chapter 20, sloka 21, where Lord Krsna addressing Uddhava says: "In this world one who follows the duties of Varna and Asrama according to the prescriptions of the Scriptures and who is sinless and pure-hearted attains unmixed knowledge, and it is only by an inexplicable fortune that one can gain Bhakti in Me." Offering of inaudible muttering of the Mantras or revealed syllables and chanting the Name of the Lord and of meditation or worship is Dasya. In the Seventh Canto of the Bhagavatam in Chapter 5 and sloka 23, in reply to the question of King Hiranyakasipu 'What is highest education?', Prince Prahlada said: "Father! I consider it to be the highest form of education to surrender oneself-completely with body and mind to Lord Vishnu for following one or all the Nine Forms of Bhakti, viz. (1) listening to, (2) singing, (3) meditating upon the Name, Form, Beauty, Qualities, Pastimes of Lord Visnu (Krsna), (4) service to His Feet, (5) His worship, (6) praying hymns, (7) attendance on Him or Dasya, (8) establishing friendly feeling for Him, and (9) self-dedication."

       Sri Visvanatha Cakravati observes that There 'normal Karma' should be understood as 'Karmas in relation to the Varnas and Asramas, and that such Karmas should be wholesome and not undesirable such as washing of hands after going to the privy, etc. And, mediation, worship, inaudible chanting of the revealed syllables, etc. is also karma. When both these  forms of karma are offered by a Vaisnavas to Lord Visnu, then only they are termed Dasya. –185-




Text 186:


mridu-sraddhasya kathita svalpa karmadhikarita |

tad-arpitam harau dasyam iti kaiscid udiryate || 186 ||


       Translation: One whose faith in the Lord is rather mild is also partially eligible for such karma, and if such a one offers  his karma to Lord Hari, it is also called Dasya by some. –186-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami points out that the author Sri Rupa Gosvami has subsequently shown that though inaudible chanting, meditation, worship, etc. cannot be said to be Dasya if they are not offered to the Lord, yet they are accepted as elements or Angas of  Vaidhi-Sadhana- Bhakti. But the fore-fold natural Karma cannot be said to be angas of unalloyed Bhakti. Therefore it is not the author's own view. But some people hold the view that offering of Karma of those who cherish mild faith in the Lord is also called Dasya. In the same manner, ‘arpitam' in the text of sloka 186 means offering itself. But in the Bhagavatam in the words of Prince Prahlada, as stated above, according to Sridhara Svami's comment, the Nine Forms of Bhakti if offered to Lord Visnu are to be accepted as the highest form of education. Therefore, he makes a difference between ‘offering' ( of Karma-Karma-arpanam)  and 'dasya' or service rendered to the Lord.

       Sri Mukunda dasa comments that the expression 'by some' in the text refers to Sridhara Svami and others, who call offering of karma to the Lord by those who have mild faith in the Lord as Dasya.

       Sri Visvanatha points out that Sri Rupa Gosvami hereafter has established meditation on the Lord, telling beads and chanting of the Lord's Name, worship, etc. as pure Bhakti even if they be not offered to the Lord. But the afore–said Karma of Varna and Asrama cannot be pure Bhakti even if they were offered to God. So, to call such offering of karma of varna and asrama as Bhakti is not the viewer of the author Sri Rupa Gosvami, for he has already defined pure Bhakti as untouched by karma, jnana, yoga, etc. In the text, 'mild faith' means not having firm faith in the belief that it is only by following the way of pure Bhakti everything else is fully attained. –186-




Text 187:


dvitiyam yatha naradiye

iha yasya harer dasye karmana manasa gira |

nikhilasv apy avasthasu jivan-muktah sa ucyate || 187 ||




       Translation: THE SECOND of the two forms of Dasya:


       It is said in the Naradiya Puranam that one who cherishes the desire to serve and whose effort are all engaged in the service of Lord Hari with body, mind and speech, is a liberated person under all circumstances even while living in this world and such a one escape future births. –187-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami comments that 'one's attempts for the service of Lord Hari' means one's desire to serve the Lord with the idea ‘I am my Lord's servant'. The author Sri Rupa Gosvami here asserts his own view on the subject.

       Sri Mukunda dasa however explains 'efforts for the service of Lord Hari' as serving Lord Hari with body, mind and speech with the feeling 'I belong to my Lord'. For example, in the Ninth Canto of the Bhagavatam, Chapter 4, sloka 18 to 20, Sri Sukadeva Gosvami addressing King Pariksita says: "King Ambarisa engaged his mind in the mediation of the Lotus-like beautiful Feet of Lord Sri Krsna, his words in singing the Glories of the Lord, his ears in listening to the Events of the Divine Life of the Lord, his pair of eyes in seeing the temple of Lord Mukunda, his skin in touching the sacred body of pure devotees of the Lord, his nose in smelling the sacred and sweet scent of the Tulasi and sandal offered at the Feet of the Lord, his tongue in tasting the found offered to the Lord, his pair of foot in traveling on pilgrimage to the places associated with the Lord, his head in bowing before the Lord's Feet, and all his desires in the service of the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna. King Ambarisa did not employ his senses for sense pleasures". –187-




Text 188:


(48) atha sakhyam

visvaso mitra-vrittis ca sakhyam dvividham iritam || 188 ||


       Translation: (48) Next is SAKHYAM or FRIENDSHIP:


The wise have called Sakhyam (Companionship or Friendship) of two kinds, based on faith and temperament of friendly  feelings. –188-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami here points out that of the two kinds of Sakhyam or friendliness i.e. one based on faith and the other based on one's normal and innate disposition for the Lord as a Friend, the first view belongs to others and the second is the author's own view. The word 'Mitra' means friend in all its bearing. For example, in the Tenth Canto of the Bhagavatam, Chapter 14, sloka 32, Brahma while offering his hymns in praise of Lord Sri Krsna stays: "Ah! How fortunate is Nanda and other Brajavasis! What a fortune! The All-blissful, Eternal And the absolute Brahman is their Friend!" In the text the friendly affection by temperament means the natural feeling for the Lord as when one says ‘I am Thy friend.' –188-




Text 189:


tatra adyam yatha mahabharate

pratijne tava govinda na me bhaktah pranasyati |

iti samsmritya samsmritya pranan samdharayamy aham || 189 ||


       Translation: FIRST, i.e. Sakhyam by faith-In the Mahabharata, Sri Draupadi addressing Lord Sri Krsna says: "Oh Lord Govinda! It is Thy promise that Thy devotees shalt not completely be ruined, and this remembering again and again I hold my life." –189-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami points out that the faith of Sri Draupadi expressed in the words 'Thy promise, Oh Govinda!' has been cited here as an example of Sakhyam based on faith in Vaidhi Sadhana-Bhakti. But later on it will be shown that Sri Draupadi is one amongst the Eternal Associates of the Lord in Prema-Bhakti i.e. this feeling of Sri Draupadi is an Anu-Bhava (one that follows in the wake of Vibhava) of Prema-Bhakti, and does not belong to Sadhana Bhakti. But it is not wholly impossible that on rare occasions even Prema-Bhaktas act like Sadhana-Bhaktas. It is for this reason that Sri  Draupadi's words have been cited here as an example of Sadhana-Bhakti's particular anga or element, Sakhya. Such examples can be found in the Bhagavatam, also (e.g. Canto XI, Chapter 2, sloka 55). While describing the signs of a superior devotee, sage Sri Havi addressing King Nimi says: "He is a superior devotee whose heart the Supreme Lord Hari with His Feet bound by the silken tie of Pranaya (see Introduction, Section XII) cannot leave-the Lord, the very utterance of whose Name even inadvertently, destroys all sins." Here the action of binding the Feet of the Lord within the heart with the tie of Pranaya is a special aspect of Prema, as an Anu--Bhava of the Lord's Associates. Even this action of the highest, Prema-Bhakta has been cited by sage Havi as an example of a spiritual act in the state of Sadhana i.e. in the preliminary stage  of spiritual practices.

       Sri Mukunda das Gosvami observes that in the above quotation of the words of Sri Draupadi as an example of Vaidhi Sadhana-Bhakti, it is understood that in such citations only the relevant applicable portions should be accepted as an example, and not necessarily the whole of the verse quoted. In this way, quotations have been cited in this book in some places. For example, while explaining the signs of the sprouting of Bhava-Bhakti, the words of the siddha-bhakta King

Pariksita have been cited. In the First Canto, Chapter 19, sloka 15 of the Bhagavatam, the dying King Pariksita, addressing the assembled munis and rsis said: "Oh Brahmanas! May you all and Devi Ganga know this cursed self, whose mind is now fixed in the Supreme Lord Krsna, as one who has taken shelter in you! Let the witchcraft or Maya sent by the brahmana-boy or the serpent bite me with ease and without fear-I do not desire to oppose it in any way whatsoever. May you only sing uninterruptedly the Glories of Lord Visnu so that I may hear them!" Here the siddha-bhakta (one who has already attained the highest stage of Bhakti) King Pariksita is cited as an example of a devotee in whom only Bhava-Bhakti is sprouting. –189-




Text 190:


tatha ekadase  61

tai-bhuvana-vibhava-hetave ‘py akuntha-smritir ajitatma suradibhir vimrigyat |

na calati bhagavad-padaravindal lava nimisardham api yah sa vaisnavagryah ||190||


       Translation: Further example of Sakhya based on faith as an anga or element of Vaidhi Sadhana-Bhakti is quoted from, the Bhagavatam where addressing King Nimi, the sage Sri Havi says: "One who does not deviate even for the twinkling of an eye frown the constant remembrance of the Divine Feet of the Supreme Lord Sri Hari, who is unattainable by the uncontrolled gods of heaven who aspire after attainment of the kingdom of heaven, is a great Vaisnava. –190-


       Translator's note: It is stated that friendly affection (Sakhya) and complete self-surrender (atma-nivedana), the two forms of Angas or features of Bhakti, are extremely rare. Only in some devotees of exceptional merit they are sometimes observed. They, in fact, are the characteristics of the accomplished devotees of the Eternal Order, i.e. Associates and Attendants of the Lord in the Divine Realm. Therefore their mention as Angas of Sadhana-Bhakti, than is, Bhakti to be realized or accomplished by practice, will appear to be not quite appropriate in the present context. If they are mentioned however here, it is because in very rare cases the belief that matures into friendly affection (Sakhya) and complete self-surrender (atma-nivedana) may also be observed in advanced devotees in this earth. –190-


61  Bhagavatam, Canto XI, Chap.2, sloka 53.



Text 191:


sraddha-matrasya tad-bhaktav adhikaritva hetuta |

angatvamasya-visvasa visesasya tu kesave || 191 ||




       Translation: SRADDHA or FAITH is a necessary conditional of eligibility for the worship of the Lord, and this faith is an aspect (Anga) of the belief in the Supreme and Absolute Reality of Lord Kesava (Krsna). –191-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva, observes: though the two terms 'sraddha' and 'visvasa' are ordinarily regarded as synonyms, yet one may describe the primary stage as one of 'sraddha' or faith, and the subsequent stage as one of 'visvasa' or belief (in the Reality of the Object of faith). And thus a distinction may be drawn between the two, though usually they are treated as synonyms.


       Translator's note: The difference between sraddha and visvasa is the same as the difference between a determinable and a determinate. This may be explained by an illustration. Color is a determinable, and its determinates are red, blue, black, white, green, etc. Thus the determinable color becomes determinate as red or blue color. In the same way, sraddha is the primary stage- a stage of faith in general; it becomes specific as 'visvasa' or 'belief' in Kesava as the Lord and the

Supreme Reality. –191-




Text 192:


dvitiyam yatha agastya-samhitayam

paricarya parah kecit prasadesu ca serate |

manusyam iva tam drastum vyavahartun ca bandhuvat || 192 ||


Translation: SECONDLY, Friendly feelings:


It is said in the Agastya-samhita that there are certain devotees who look upon the Deity with an intense attachment as of a friend such as one feels towards a man in this world, and this with the object of rendering personal services; and behaving with the Deity like a friend (as an attendant friend does), sleeps inside the temple.  192-




Text 193:


Raganugangatasya syadvidhimarganapeksanat

Marga-Dvayena Caitena Sadhya Sakhyaratirmata || 193 ||



       Translation: As Sakhya (as an anga of Vaidhi Sadhana-Bhakti, such as is described in the previous verse) is not bound by the rules and regulations of Vaidhi Bhakti, the friendly feelings for the Deity even in the temple truly becomes an Anga of Raganuga-Bhakti. Therefore Sakhya-Bhakti in both the paths of Vaidhi and Raganuga-Bhakti is Sakhya-Bhakti as a process of

sadhana or spiritual practice and has Sakhya-Rati as its fruit; i.e. Sakhya-Bhakti in the stage of sadhana ripens into Sakhya-Rati as the fruit of sadhana. –193-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami points out that though the quotation here should have come under the heading of Raganuga-Bhakti, yet it should also be accepted as a part of Vaidhi-Bhakti as well-that is the contention of the author. –193-


       Translator's note: In the text ‘Sakhya-Rati' in both the two paths of ‘Vaidhi' and ‘Raganuga' refers to the fact that though ‘Sakhya' or intimate friendly feelings for the Lord is independent of the regulations of the Scriptures and is in most cases aroused out of intense longing for serving the Lord in the way the Eternal Associates of the Lord, such as His Friends. His Parents or the Gopis in Braja serve Him, is essentially an anga of Raganuga- Bhakti, yet it is not absolutely

uncommon that at times some devotees in the stage of their spiritual practices, while still in bondage, develop this intimate friendly feeling for the Deity in the temple (which is the essential aspect of Vaidhi-Bhakti), -and Sakhya-Rati, which is the fruit of Sakhya-Bhakti, grows out of it. For, it has been described by Sri Rupa Gosvami that Raganuga Bhakti is possible for an individual being when an intense longing is aroused in the heart of a sadhaka by his or her listening to the rapturous ways in which the Ragatmikas, i.e. the Co-menifestations of the Supreme Lord out of His inconceivable prerogative as Sri Radha and Gopis in Madhura-Rati, as Nanda-Yasoda in Vatsalya-Rati, Sridama, Sudama, Suvala, Madhumangala in Sakhya-Rati, and Citraka, Patraka in Dasya-Rati, serve the Lord. Ragatmikas must not be confounded with the Raganugas.No individual finite soul or Jiva even at the highest stage of its spiritual attainment can become a Ragatmika, nor can such an individual atma attain Ragatmika-Bhakti. It is only in subordination to the Ragatmikas who are the Lord's Eternal Associates, such as is mentioned before, and with an intense longing for following in the wake of the ways and feelings of the Ragatmikas that an individual Jiva in bondage can attain Sakhya-Bhakti which finally develops into Sakhya-Rati as Raganuga-Bhakti. Sadhana-Bhakti is both Vaidhi and Raganuga. In Vaidhi-Bhakti, everything is dictated by the injunctions and prohibitions of the Scriptures, whereas in Raganuga-Bhakti the dominant factor is not directions of the Scriptures but an intense longing and taste for serving the Lord in the way the Co-eternal Associates of the Lord, who are called Ragatmikas, serve the Lord lovingly. The essential characteristic of Raganuga-Bhakti is, therefore, not to be guided by the Scriptures. But because at times it has been found that some sadhakas in their preliminary stages of spiritual practices gradually develop a longing for serving the Lord (even in the stage of bondage, as in the stage of worshipping the Deity in the temple) in the wake of the ways and feelings of the Eternal Associates in the Eternal Order, Sri Rupa Gosvami has mentioned Sakhya as an anga of Vaidhi Sadhana-Bhakti, though truly it is an anga of Raganuga Sadhana- Bhakti. –193-




Text 194:


atha atmanivedanam, yatha ekadaso 62 

martyo yada tyakta-samasta-karma niveditamta vicikirsito me |

tadamritatvam pratipadyamano mayatma-bhuuyaya ca kalpate vaiIti 62|| 194 ||


       Translation: (49) Next, Self-dedication:


       In the Eleventh Canto of the Bhagavatam Lord Sri Krsna tells Sri Uddhava: "When man dissociates himself from all karma or gives up all karma and completely dedicates his self to Me, then I desire to give him the highest good and eternal life and he crosses the door of Death and attains a Body similar to Mine."  -194-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami observes that when an individual dedicates one's atma or self to the Lord, naturally the Parama-Atma, i.e. Lord, takes control of him as a kinsman does for one's own kin. In such a stage of self-dedication to the Lord, one gives up all forms of daily earthly duties, i.e. duties that are incumbent on one as arising out of one's station in life. In such a stage the Lord Himself desires to give him the highest good, i.e. Bhakti, and he conquers Death,

i.e. becomes immortal, and attains Sarsi-Mukti, i.e. majesties equal to the Lord.

       Sri Mukunda dasa Gosvami says that one who has attained to the stage of complete self-dedication (atma-nivedana) has simultaneously also abstained from all wrong-doing, i.e. actions or karmas contrary to or showing neglect of the Vedic prescriptions and also must have given up all earthly responsibilities to one's wife and children, etc. He has thereby conquered Death and attained all the divine qualities of a pure devotee.  –194-


62  Bhagavatam, Canto XI, Chap. 29, sloka 34.



Text 195:


artha dvidhatma-sabdasya panditair upapayate |

dehy ahantaspadam kaiscid dehah kaiscin mamatva-bhak || 195 ||


       Translation: The wise has said that the self (in self-dedication) is of two kinds. Some say that dedication of one's ‘egoism' is atma-nivedana, and others say that dedication of one's bodily attachments and of such that is related to the body is self-dedication. –195-




Text 196:


tatra dehi, yatha yamunacarya-stotre

vapuradisu to ‘pi va gunato ‘sani yatha-tatha-vidhah |

tadayam tava padapadmayo rahamadyaiva maya samarpitah || 196 ||


       Translation: Of these two, Dedication of one's Egoism or misidentification of the pure self with the physical body:

       It has been said in the hymns of Sri Yamunacarya: "Oh Lord! I dedicate my self completely to Thee even though this self may be now engaged either in the physical body as a human being or be in heaven in the form of a god owing to some good actions, or in whatever condition it may now be-such an ‘I', I offer this very day at Thy Lotus Feet."  -196-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami says that according to the various theories whatever may be this 'I' in its essential nature, to dedicate one's self, whether misconceiving oneself either as a man or as a god or anything else-one's egoism, this very day to the Feet of the Lord is 'self-dedication.'

       Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti observes: "Oh Lord! Because of my past actions and qualities, if I am born as a bird or beast or man or god in heaven, in such births in whatever conditions I be, whether in sound health or as physically mutilated, this my perverted 'I' I over to Thee this very day!"


       Translator's note: The different theories about this 'self' vary. Some hold the physical body as the 'self', others call the 'senses' as the self, or the 'mind' the self, or 'intelligence' the self, or ‘the reflected Brahman as intelligence' the self. Some hold it to be a separated part of Brahman, and others call this, 'self' an intelligent atma. All these different conceptions about the 'self' shall come under 'atma-nivedana' or dedication of one's 'I' or egoism. –196-




Text 197:


Deho, yatha bhakti-viveke

cintam kuryan na raksayair vikritasya yatha pasoh |

tatharpayan harau deham viramedasya raksanat || 197 ||


       Translation: Secondly, Dedication of Body:


       It has been staid in the Bhaktiviveka that just as one has not to worry about the protection and watching of an animal which has been disposed of, so also one ceases to think about how one would be looked after-once an individual has  dedicated his body and soul to the Feet of Lord Hari. –197-




Text 198:


duskaratvena virale dve sakhyatma-nivedane |

kesancid eva dhiranam labhate sadhanarhatam || 198 ||


       Translation: As both Sakhya (intimate friendly feelings, for the Lord aroused of spontaneous and intense longing for such feelings) and atma-nivedana (complete dedication of one's ego and body and soul to the Feet of the Lord) are very very rare and difficult, it is Only a very few deserving and qualified persons with ever deepening faith that are found to possess  them as results of their spiritual practices. –198-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami observes that self-dedication (atma-nivedana) is rare only because it is very difficult to dedicate oneself completely to the Lord, but not because it is not rare in its glories as there is want of intense, personal feelings for the Lord, whereas Sakhya is rare both because it is very very difficult to attain and also because of its superb feelings for the Lord irrespective of any scriptural guidance. But if atma-nivedana or self-dedication also was

enriched by association of intense feelings for the Lord, then it also becomes rare in both ways. Of these two forms of atma-nivedana or self-dedication, i.e. dedication of one's 'I'- and dedication of one's, attachment for the body and all that is associated with the body (and such dedication with intense feeling of Erection for the Lord), King Vali's atma-nivedana or dedication illustrates the former, i.e. complete self-dedication without however a feeling of intense attachment for the Lord. Sri Jiva further points out the difference between atma-nivedana (self-dedication) and 'saranagati' or self-surrender. In self-surrender (saranagati), one considers oneself being under the protection of the Lord, i.e. considers oneself to be completely subservient to the Lord and to be under His protection, while in self-dedication (atma-nivedana) one offers one's 'I', body and all attachments related to the body, with or without an intense feeling of intimacy for the Lord. As regards atma-nivedana enriched by intimate feelings for the Lord, one may take the example of King Ambarisa. It is said in the Ninth Canto, Chapter 4, slokas 18-20 of the Bhagavatam: "King Ambarisa engaged his mind in the meditation of the Lotus-like beautiful Feet of Lord Sri Krsna, his faculty of speech in singing the glories of the Lord, his two hands in cleansing the temple of the Lord, his ears in listening to the discourses on the Divine vents of the Life of Lord Sri Krsna, his eyes in seeing the temple of Lord Mukunda, his tactile sense in touching the sacred body of the pure devotees of the Lord, his olfactory sense in smelling the sweet odor of the offered Tulasi-leaves, his tongue in tasting the food etc. offered to the Lord through the process of the revealed syllables, his feet in traveling on foot to the sacred places of pilgrimage associated with the Lord, his head bowed at the Feet of Lord Hari, and all his desires employed for being blessed with the Dasya or service of the Supreme Lord. The king did not engage his senses for any earthly pleasures." In the Eleventh Cant of the Bhagavatam, the Lord has also described about self-dedication or atma-nivedana to Him attended with the feelings of a personal servant. In likes manner, in the Tenth Canto of the Bhavagatam, Chapter 52, sloka 39, it is stated how Queen Rukmini in Dvaraka dedicated Herself to Lord Sri Krsna with the most intimate feelings for the Supreme Lord as Her Eternal and Divine Consort. She wrote a letter to the Lord thus: "Oh Beloved! Oh Great! I look upon Thee as my Divine Husband and have therefore dedicated myself completely to Thee. Do please come to Dvaraka and graciously accept me as Thy Queen." Similar examples can be multiplied of self-dedication  with intimate friendly feelings and affection for the Lord.

       Sri Mukunda dasa Gosvami points out that Sakhya discounts all injunctions and prohibitions and shows itself in spontaneous intense intimate feelings for the Lord, while extreme endurance of hunger and thirst is characteristic of self-dedication or atma-nivedana. All this shows that both are extremely rare. The word ‘dhira' in the text means those devotees who are advanced and have deep-rooted faith. –198-




Text 199:


(50) atha nija-priyopaharanam, yatha ekadaso  63

yad yad istatamam loke yac cati-priyam atmanah |

tat tan nivedayen mahyam tad anantyaya kalpate || 199 ||


       Translation: (50) OFFERING OF ONE'S DEAR OBJECTS:


       Lord Sri Krsna tells Sri Uddhava in the Eleventh Canto of the Bhagavatam: "If objects which are much desired and which are very dear to a person be offered to Me, then such gifts bear permanent fruits." –199-


       Commentary: Sri Mukunda dasa observes that not only one should offer objects of one's own liking and which are dear to oneself but one should also offer such things like gunja (a small shrub bearing red and black-berries and a garland made of the seeds of these red-black-berries is called Gunja-mala), peacocks feathers etc. which are dear to Lord Sri Krsna. –199-


 63  Bhagavatam, Canto XI, Chap. 11, sloka 41.117



Text 200:


(51) atha tad-arthe ‘khila-cestitam, yatha pancaratre

laukiki vaidiki vapi ya kriya kriyate mune |

hari sevanukulaiva sa karya bhaktim icchata || 200 ||


       Translation: All Endeavors for the Sake of Lord Krsna:

       It is said in the Narada-Pancaratra: "Oh great sage! All forms of activities, conventional or Vedic, that are prevalent in society, should be offered to Lord Hari and favorably employed for His service if one should aspire after pure Bhakti." –200-


       Commentary: Sri Mukunda dasa Gosvami observes that one should not offer those karmas to the Lord, which are not meant for His service of are not acceptable for the Lord's service. –200-




Text 201:


(52) atha saranapattih, yatha hari-bhakti-vilase

tavasmiti vadan vaca tathaiva manasa vidan |

tat sthanam asritastanva modate saranagatah || 201 ||


       Translation: (52) Next, SELF-SURRENDER:


It is stated in the Haribhakti-vilasa that one who expresses oneself in the words: "Lord! I am Thine! " And also mentally thinks so, and physically takes abode in the Lord's Realm, exemplifies true self-surrender in his being. -200-



Text 202:


sri narasimhe ca

tvam prapanno ‘smi saranam deva-deva janardana |

iti yah saranam praptas tam klesad uddharamy aham || 202 ||


       Translation: It is said by the Lord in Nrsinha Puranam: "I deliver him from all miseries who, saying ‘Oh Lord of lords! Oh Janardana! I surrender myself unto Thee' takes refuge in Me." 202-


       Commentary: Sri Jiva Gosvami says that the word 'Sarana' has two meanings; firstly, it means dependence on the Lord as the only Protector, and secondly it means taking complete shelter at the Feet of the Lord. In the above text, "I surrender myself unto Thee" means 'Lord! I accept Thee as my Protector.' The Lord delivers such a person from all his  afflictions. –202-



Text 203:


(53) atha tadyanam sevanam tulasyah

yatha skande

ya drista nikhilagha-sanga samani sprista vapuh pavani |

raganam abhivandita nirasani siktantakatrasini ||

pratyasatti-vidhayini bhagavatah krisnasya samropita |

nyasta tac-carane vimukti-phalada tasyai tulasyai namah || 203 ||


       Translation: (53) SERVING THOSE ASSOCIATED WITH



       It is mentioned in the Skanda Puranam: I bow down to the Tulasi the very sight of which destroys all sins, the touch of which purifies lowly birth, making obeisances to which acts as an antidote to all diseases and sufferings, sprinkling water at whose root removes all fears of death, planting of which makes one devoted to the Feet of Sri Krsna, and offering of which at the Feet of Sri Krsna gives special mukti, i. e. Prema-Bhakti. –203-




Text 204-205:


tatha ca tatraiva

drista sprista tatha dhyata kirita namita stuta |

ropita sevita nityam pujita tulasi subha || 204 ||

navadha tulasim devim ye bhajanti dine dine |

yuga-koti-sahasrani te vasanti harer-grihe || 205 ||


       Translation: It is further stated in the Skanda Puranam that he who serves Tulasi daily in the nine ways, viz. daily seeing, touching, meditating on, singing the glories of, making obeisances to, listening discourses about, planting and growing five leaves of it daily, and otherwise serving it-makes Tulasi a bestower of benefits, whereby he attains the fruit of living in the House of Lord Hari for thousands of years. -204-205-




Text 206:


(54) atha sastrasya

sastra-matra samakhyatam yad-bhakti-pratipadakam || 206 ||


       Translation: (54) SERVING SCRIPTURES:


Here "Scriptures" or "Sastras" mean those books, which establish Bhakti. -206-




Text 207:


yatha skande

vaisnavani tu sastrani ye srinvanti pathanti ca |

dhanyaste manava loke tesam krisnah prasidati || 207 ||


       Translation: Blessed are they in this world who, study and listen to Vaisnava literature, and Lord Sri Krsna is pleased with them. –207-




Text 208:


vaisnavani tu sastrani ye arcayanti grihe narah |

sarva-papa-vinirmukta bhavanti sura-vanditah || 208 ||


       Translation: Those who worship Vaisnava Scriptures in their homes are freed from all sins and are adored by the gods. –208-




Text 209:


tisthate vaisnavim sastram likhitam yasya mandire |

tatra narayano devah svayam vasati narada || 209 ||


       Translation: "Oh Narada! In the house in which Vaisnava Scriptures are written and then preserved, Lord Narayana Himself makes His Abode." –209-




Return to[Bhaktivedanta Memorial Library Logo]