Bhakti-Rasamrta-Sindhu (Part 2)

(see also Part one)

The second installment of:


by Srila Rupa Goswami

Translation and commentary by

Tridandi Hrydaya Bon Maharaj

Rector, Institute of Oriental Philosophy


So far the different stages in the gradual development of PREMA starting from SRADDHA to PREMA, have been dealt with by Sri Rupa Gosvami in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, and we have given here just a summary of the same. It will however, be necessary to explain here in a nutshell how Prema further unfolds itself into SNEHA, MANA, PANAYA, RAGA, ANU-RAGA, BHAVA and MAHABHAVA in relation to the transcendental Love-Pastimes in Madhura-rati, i.e. supra-mundane wifehood and mistresshood of the freed soul (which is no more misidentified with the physical and mental bodies) in relation to the Supreme Godhead in His Husbandhood and Paramourhood respectively, there being absolutely nothing mundane and physical in it, though it may sound so.

(To be continued)

Part II

(Introduction continues)

Though Prema functions in all the twelve Sthayi-bhavas, i.e., permanent sentiments, viz. Five primary i.e. (1)Santa, (2) Dasya, (3)Sakhya, (4) Vatsalya, and (5) Madhura, and seven secondary, i.e. (6)Hasya, (7) Karuna, (8) Raudra, (9) Vira, (10) Bhayankara, (11)Vibhatsa, and (12) Adbhuta, it is essentially in Madhura-Sthayi-bhava-rati only that it rolls ever more, on and on, in all the manifold fine shades and ripples. Therefore,

Madhura-bhava has been accepted to be the highest expression of Prema in the Realm of the Absolute Divinity. Sri Rupa Goswami has, therefore, dealt with this aspect of Prema, as expressed in the various shades of Madhura-bhava beginning from PREMA and reaching unto MAHABHAVA, separately in his Ujjvala-Nilamani, whereas the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu deals up to Prema, beginning from the lowest step of Sradhha in the ladder of the spiritual sadhana of Bhakti of the highest order. Here we shall give a very short note on Madhura-rati culminating in Mahabhava as described in the Ujjvala-Nilamani whereas the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu deals up to Prema, beginning from the lowest step of Sraddha in the ladder of the spiritual sadhana of Bhakti of the highest order. Here we shall give a very short note on maha-rati culminating in Mahabhava as described in the Ujjvala-Nilamani.

?The Supreme Transcendental and Sole Enjoyer of the supra-mundane Erotic Sentiments finds His highest expressions in Madhura-bhava, also called Madhura-rati, which is a Sthayi-bhava or permanent feeling. In this Madhura-Sthayi-bhava, Sri Krsna is the only Subject (6) and the transcendental Damsels of Vraja are the Objects. (7)

(6) I use the word "Subject " in the sense that the Supreme Lord Krsna is the only and always the Predominating Enjoyer, and everything else is "object" of His enjoyment.

(7) "Object" is used to signify the "Dominated-Enjoyed".

When the Madhura-Sthayi-bhava combines with the four ingredients of Vibhava, Anu-bhava, Sattvika and Sancari, it is then called MADHURA-PREMA or SRNGARA RASA. As already stated, all these conceptions have nothing mundane about them, and they are technical expressions of the Supra-mundane Realm of the Supreme Godhead and can be experienced only by genuine spiritual practices. By any application of the cognitional and emotional faculties of the mind, however developed and refined, Prema can never be understood, much less realised.. Here the Means and the End must be one and the same–it has to be unfolded and awakened from within the innate nature of the eternal self and cannot be got from without. These technical expressions will, therefore, be explained as far as humanly possible, in a Glossary, and in the body of the book we shall use the original expressions. It will be a mistake to attempt to render these expressions in common English equivalents, which will only relate to human love, which is sensual lust. We must draw a thick line between sensual and transcendental–between sensual loved which is another name for lust, and Divine Prema.

?The divine Gopis, the Eternal Damsels of Vraja, are eternally freed souls, and are Associated Parts of Sri Krsna, as distinct from His separated parts, i.e. the individual finite souls. Each One of them has a supra-mundane personality, and they conceive themselves in their unmarried Maidenhood or married Wifehood or unrestricted Mistresshood in relation to the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna Who is their Beloved. When Prema is discussed, it must always be remembered that it has nothing to do with any love-affair between a man and a woman of this world, however noble it might appear to be. The love-relation between a man and a woman in this world is sensual lust, while the PREMA between the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna, the Godhead, and the supra-mundane Damsels of Vraja is absolutely transcendental. Love of this world, in any form, is definitely lust in different forms and degrees and can be compared with the dense darkness of the 15th day of the Dark-fortnight, while Prema of Vraja and of the Damsels of Vraja are bright like the Midday Sun. With this preliminary background we now proceed to discuss Prema in Madhura-rati.

The clever and intriguing nature of the Damsels of Vraja is eternal and innate in their very existence. Through Prema is their normal characteristic, yet the under —mentioned seven causes and conditions made Prema manifest itself in them:---

  1. Abhiyoga: Complaint. To make one’s inner sentiments known either by oneself or through someone else as by way of complain–or Abiyoga to Sri Krsna in Madhura-rati;
  2. Visaya: Subject.8* Voice, Touch, Form, Taste and Smell of Sri Krsna are the "Subjects" of Madhura-rati and are its roots, i.e. these, viz. Voice, Touch, Form, Taste and Smell of Sri Krsna dominate the reciprocal Senses of the Damsels of Vraja in Madhura rati;

    8 * In Prema-Rasa, Sri Krsna is the "Visaya", i.e. the Supreme Enjoyer by all His Spiritual senses, and this absolute Predominating Aspect of Sri Krsna as "Viasaya" I translate as "Subject", while Sri Radha and the Damsels of Vraja are the "Asraya" of Prema-Rasa as the Dominated, and I translate this "Asraya" aspect in Prema as "Object".

  3. Sambandha: Relation. Madhura-rati is aroused by ---Family, Supra-mundane Body, Heroism, Civility, etc., which are related to Sri Krsna;
  4. Abhimana: Feeling as their own. In spite of the presence of other beautiful objects, the Damsels of Vraja cherish a determined and sensitive decision that Sri Krsna alone is the only Subject of attainment. This feeling that Sri Krsna is their own arouses Madhura-rati in them;
  5. Tadiya Visesa; His Specialties, Rati is awakened by the sight of the Foot-prints of Sri Krsna, His Vraja and His dear Associates and Companions, etc’
  6. Upama: Comparison, Madhura-rati is enkindled in the heart of the Damsels of Vraja at the sight of any object which has even the slightest likeness with the Form and Beauty of Sri Krsna;
  7. Svabhava: Natural. When Rati wakes up spontaneously in the heart of the Vraja-Gopis without any exterior cause, it is called Svabhava or normal nature of Madhura-rati, which Svabhava has again two forms, viz.

(i)Nisarga: Causal. The various impressions that grow from a culture day —and-night listening to and meditation upon the Form Qualities, etc. of Sri Krsna;

(ii)Svarupa: Innate. A normal and spontaneous Madhura-rati is independent of any such listening to or meditating upon Sri Krsna, and is called Svarupa-Svabhava or innate nature of Madhura-rati, which is again of three forms. Viz.

    1. Krsna Nista: Krsna as the Subject of Rati. When the Damsels of Vraja do not hide the character and qualities of Sri Krsna from anybody except the devils and the demons, and when they expose their Rati for Sri Krsna amongst themselves, it is called Krsna-Nistha;
    2. Lalana-Nistha: Vraja Gopis as the Object of Rati. When the Damsels of Vraja have an independent and normal Rati for Sri Krsna without any previous knowledge of Him or without previously listening to anything about Him, or without previously seeing Him, it is called Lalana-Nistha Svarupa-Svabhava of Madhura-rati; its is a specialty of the Damsels of Vraja;
    3. Ubhaya-Nistha: Mutually devoted. When Bhava or Rati is aroused in the hearts of the beautiful Damsels of Vraja (Vraja-Lalana) at the sight of Sri Krsna, and similar reciprocal Bhava is aroused in the heart of Sri Krsna at the sight of the Damsels of vraja, it is called Ubhaya-Nistha Svarupa-Svabhava.

The above mentioned seven causes of Madhura-rati have been stated only to show it super-excellence in amatory gestures, though in fact the Madhura-Bhava

Of the Damsels of Vraja is innate and normal, and their attachment does not depend on any cause whatsoever.

There are three forms of Madhura-rati of an individual soul (atma) conceiving itself as inspired by the feeling of womanhood or mistresshood. They are:

    1. SADHARANI RATI; The Rati, i.e. the permanent sentiment or Sthayi- bhava that is not very much deep and that is generally aroused by the sight of Sri Krsna alone, and that is pregnant with a thirst for love-sports with the Lord is called Sadharani Rati. Its climax is up to Prema only, as already explained under Heading IX. The Rati that was aroused in Kubja’s heart at the very sight of Sri Krsna when the Lord was going to the amphitheater of King Kamsa to kill him, is an example of this Sadharani Rati, which is indeed very rare and valued like a jewel (mani);
    2. SAMANJASA RATI: This Rati is very very rare like the fabulous gem that grants the possessor whatever may be wished for (cinta-mani). Here the Rati is deep in the feeling of married wifehood, as in the case of the Queens of Dvaraka, such as Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambavati and others in Their relation with the Supreme Lord. This Samanjasa Rati is awakened in the heart on listening to the glories and qualities of Sri Krsna. There is also occasional desire for love-sports with the Lord. The Queens of Dvaraka are the Objects of Samanjasa Rati, and it reaches to the stage of ANU-RAGA in the gradual superior order of Prema, Sneha, Mana, Pranaya, Raga and Anu-Raga, and does not reach Bhava and Mahabhava;
    3. SAMARTHA RATI: This Rati is possible in the Damsels of Vraja alone and nowhere else. It is supremely one without a second like the Kaustubha-Mani, the Jewel that adorns the breast of Sri Krsna. As the Kaustubha-jewel cannot be found anywhere but on the breast of Sri Krsna alone, so also this Samarthi-Rati is possible with the Damsels of Vraja only. By its distinctive characteristic of an inconceivable luminous quality, which is lacking in Sadharani and Samanjasa Ratis, Samartha Rati overwhelms and charms Sri Krsna and thereby subdues Him completely. Here there is no possible gap for any thirst for Union with the Lord, because here Samartha Rati and the Supreme Union are merged into one. This Rati is exceedingly profound and deep beyond one’s imagination. From the faintest smell of the Samartha Rati, the Gopis forget all about themselves, their hearth and home, their supposed husbands and relatives. Here everything they have and all their efforts are directed to this one end, namely, to increase the pleasures of Sri Krsna alone–there is not the slightest tinge of self-enjoyment. The maturity of Samartha Rati grows into Prema, Sneha, Mana Pranaya, Raga, Anu-Raga and Mahabhava. Here ‘Prema’ should be understood to be Madhura-Prema only, and not Prema in any other Sathayi-bhava Rati.

MADHURA PREMA: The intense tie of attachment between the SUBJECT OF PREMA, i.e.. Visaya or Predominating Nayaka or Enjoyer Krsna only, and the OBJECT OF PREMA, i.e. Dominated Asraya Nayikas or the Enjoyed Damsels of Vraja alone and none else, is such that it never ceases, even though there be grace causes for such a breach between the Subject and the Object of Sthayi-bhava in Madhura Prema. Madhura-Prema is the relation between the Supreme Godhead as the transcendental and supra-mundane Paramour and the Divine Damsels of Vraja, the Gopis, in their all-cit, i.e. spiritual supra-mundane eternal bodies as Mistresses. This Paramourhood of Sri Krsna and the Mistresshood of the Vraja-Gopis is the climax of Madhura-Prema in the Transcendental Realm of the Highest Divinity Sri Krsna, which far excels the relation of Husbandhood of the Godhead, Sri Krsna and thew Wifehood of the Queens of Dvaraka.

?MADHURA-PREMA has three aspects, viz.

    1. Praudha Prema, i.e. Prema in its full maturity. In this stage separation between the Object and the Subject of Prema becomes unbearable to the point of death.
    2. Madhya Prema, i.e. Prema in its middle aspect, in 3which separation between the Subject and the Object is painfully endured by hard penances.
    3. Manda Prema, i.e. Prema of an inferior nature, in which there are occasional lapses of oblivion about things related to the Supreme Lord Krsna.

MADHURA PREMA unfolds itself into its successively ascending aspects (X)SNEHA, (XI) MANA, (XII)PRANAYA (XIII)RAGA, (XIV) ANU-RAGA,

(XV) BHAVA, and (XVI) MAHABHAVA. These we shall explain here in a few short paragraphs from Sri Rupa Gosvami’s Ujjvala-Nilamani. Here we must again repeat by way of caution that the subject matter of Madhura-Prema is completely beyond phenomenal associations, gross physical actions, subtle mental emotions, and far beyond the scope of all human sense-experience. It can be realised on its own level only by those freed souls who are eligible for it.

In the Science of Spiritual life, the stages of sadhana or spiritual practices from (I)SRADDHA to (IV) ANARTHA-NIVRTTI concern gradual progressive stages of a self-forgetful soul from its state of bondage to its stage of self-awakening. From (V) NISTHA to (VII) BHAVA, the individual reaches the plane of transcendence, fully realises its own true finite self as distinct from the mundane body and the changeable mind-intelligence-ego, and transcends the thought-world of sense experiences and is blessed by the First Flash of the Lord’s Personal Appearance before him. In the stage of (IX) Prema Bhakti, and not Madhura-Prema, the soul has attained both self-realisation and God-realisation. When Prema further develops, it leads one to the supra-mundane (aprakrta) Realm of Sri Krsna, Who has no material body but possesses and Eternal and Aprakrta Body of His own, which appears like a human form but is completely different form it–similarity in appearance does not necessarily mean identity.

?In the Supra-mundane or Aprakrta Realm of Vraja in relation to Absolute Beatitude or Madhurya-Murti of Sri Krsna, and in Mathura and Dvaraka in relation to His Majesties-cum-Beatitude, the conceptions of eternal relationships of the Counter-Wholes and the Associate Counter-Parts of the Godhead with God Himself have already been described as (1) Santa, (2) Dasya, (3) Sakhya, (4) Vatsalya and (5) Madhura. These conceptions of relation with God must not therefore be dragged down to the level of similar but perverse relationships in this mundane world. Prema has its highest unfolding in two forms, i.e. (a) in the concept of the ‘married wifehood", and (b) in the supra-mundane or aprakrta concepts of ‘unmarried maidenhood" and "married mistresshood".

The subject has absolutely nothing whatsoever to do with the perverted love-relations in this world of changeable phenomenon. A true conception and realisation of Prema can be possible only on the plane of Transcendence, and can be aroused in the heart of a freed or mutka Jiva-atma only. People given to sensuality in any form, who try to understand it by sense-applications, must not dabble in Prema. As already said, from similar sounding expressions, one must not hurry to identify them. Prema, and Kama or sensual love in any form, are on two different levels. Prema is possible in the transcendental Realm of God alone, while Kama or sensual love is on the plane of mundane senses. It will be an utter mistake to attempt to understand Prema in terms of the knowledge of mundane love or lust (be it human or animal). It is only by honest and earnest spiritual practices or sadhana that an individual may gradually climb the different steps of the ladder, from the lowest step of Sraddha to the highest step of Prema. A mere jump from the lowest to the highest, from Kama or mundane love (which is only another form of mundane lust) to Prema will simply hurl one into the abyss of mundane lust, and such a person can never realise and relish the mellow-sweetness of supra-mundane Krsna-Prema. With this repeated caution to the readers, we now proceed to discuss the ascending stages in the development of Prema.

?(X) SNEHA: When the lamp of Prema illuminates Sri Krsna and it attains a state of excellence, and makes the inner organs of the Asraya or Object of Prema melt, then such Prema is called Sneha. When Sneha is enkindled in the heart, there is no quenching of the ever-new thirst for seeing the Lord. This Sneha is of two varieties, (viz.) (a)Ghrta-Sneha, and (b)Manu-Sneha.

  1. Ghrta-Sneha: literally means ‘affection as tender as clarified butter.’ When Sneha becomes exceedingly endearing, and the Object of Prema, i.e. the Asraya expresses her sentiments as "I am Thine", it is called Ghrta-Sneha. Sri Candravali is the Asraya or Object of this Prema.
  2. Madhu-Sneha: literally means ‘affection as tender and sweet as honey.’ When Sneha becomes expressive of the sentiment of "Thou art mine", it is called Madhu-Sneha. Here is a sense of the most intense feeling of "My-ness", such as, "Thou are mine", "Thou hast many, but I have none but Thee". Madhu-Sneha itself is a personification of bliss and charm; many aspects of Rasa are simultaneously existent in it. Sri Radha Herself is the only Object or Asraya of this Madhu-Sneha.

(XI)MANA: When Sneha overflows in super-excellent manner and a new beatitude and sweetness in the loveliness of Sri Krsna are relished which had not hitherto been felt, perceived or experienced, and when the Transcendental Mistress, the Object of Prema, assumes an outward demeanor of apparent indignation arising out of love-jealousy, it is called Mana. Mana is of two kinds, viz. (I)Udatta-Mana, ad (ii)Lalita-Mana.

(i) Udatta-Mana: When an inordinate endearment in Ghrta-Sneha emits, as it were, the odour of perverse reasoning and a sentiment of short-lived Vamya or assumed anger or displeasure, it is called Udatta-Mana, Sri Candravali is its Object of Asraya.

(ii) Lalita-Mana: When Madhu-Sneha overflows and assumes an attitude of pique and turns into a tortuous sincerity in the form of wrath and indignation excited by jealousy, it is called Lalita-Mana. Sri Radha is its Object or Asraya.

(XII) PRANAYA: When Mana reaches the stage of free-sporting and all manner of shyness and hesitation is completely removed, it is called Pranaya. In this stage of Prema, the Asraya or the Object of Madhura-rati, the Mistress, perceives no distinction between Her Body, Mind, Intelligence, Heart and Life and Those of Her Beloved Sri Krsna. Here it is to be noted that in Mana, Sri Radhika (same as Radha) does not speak and assumes an attitude of tortuous indignation, and it is only after this Mana of Sri Radhika has been appeased by Sri Krsna that Sri Radhika, Who is the Counter-Whole Divinity and Hladini Potency of Sri Krsna Himself, gives Herself unreservedly to the Predominating Absolute Moiety Sri Krsna with all Her Body, Mind, Heart and Everything and becomes One with Him.

PRANAYA can be both (a) Maitra-Pranaya, and (b) Sakhya-Pranaya.

In (a) Maitra-Pranaya there is a slight touch of respect and importance given to the Beloved Sri Krsna. Sri Candravali is the Object of this Pranaya, While Sri Radhika as the Asraya of (b) Sakhya-Pranaya does not have the least feeling of any superiority in Sri Krsna, Her Best-Beloved.

(XIII) RAGA: When Pranaya attains its highest stage, and when even the heaviest inflictions of pinches caused by Sri Krsna gives immense pleasure to the whole "mental quantum" of the transcendental Mistress, it is called Raga. Raga is either (a) Nilima (bluish) or (b) Raktima (reddish).

(a) Nilima-Raga is again of two forms Viz. Nili and Syama.

(i) Nili-Raga: There is not possibility of loss of Prema in Nili Raga. There is no outward expression in it; rather there is always an attempt to hide one’s inner feelings. Sri Candravali is the Asraya of Nila-Raga.

(ii)Syama-Raga: There is more of expression, and it is moistened with a certain amount of shyness and timidity, it is delayed in its attainment. Sri Bhadra, an intimate lady-friend of Sri Candravali is the Asraya of Syama-Raga.

(b) Raktima-Raga: It is divided in (I) Kusumbha-Raga, and (ii) Manjistha-Raga

(i) Kusumbha-Raktima-Raga has in it a combination of several other Ragas, and

it very quickly charms the inner organs (in the plane of Prema, of course). The

Asraya of this Kusumbha-Raktima-Raga is Syama, the dear lady-friend of Sri


ii) Manjistha-Raktima-Raga can never be lost; it is never dependent on any other

aspect of Raga, and it is ever progressive in its own radiance. Sri Radhika is

the Asraya or Object of this Raga.

(XIV) ANU RAGA: When the Most Beloved Lord Sri Krsna is constantly present before the yes of the Asraya, and when Raga has ripples, ever fresh and ever new in manifold forms with every twinkling of the eye, it is called Anu-Raga. There are numerous Anu-bhavas of Anu-Raga, i.e. the bhavas that follow in the wake of Anu-Raga, such as, (i) desire to be born as an inanimate object (ii) mutual victory or subjugation by mutual charm, (iii) Prema-vaicittya, i.e. a feeling of separation even in the midst of intense union, (iv) a feeling of particular alacrity and exhilaration and erotic union in the depth of the pangs of separation from the Beloved Lord.

(XV) BHAVA and (XVI) MAHBHAVA: When in the Realm of Transcendental Prema, Anu-Raga attains a stage of exhilaration and relish, which can be experienced and relished by Anu-Raga itself only and by no other Bhava, and when Anu-Raga in this stage is adorned with the inflamed and exciting sattvika or transparent ( not sattvika quality of Maya, the Deluding Energy of God, but here sattvika refers to the absolutely pure and transparent quality of the cit-entity, otherwise called Visuddha-sattva) passions like molten gold, and when this Anu-Raga reaches its climax in the Supreme Asraya Sri Radhika and becomes identical with Her very temperament and dispositions, it is called BHAVA which is otherwise called MAHABHAVA.

Sri Radhika’s very Essence is identical with Mahabhava, and Mahabhava is Sri Radhika. Sri Radhika, the Supreme Hladini Potency of Sri Krsna manifests Herself in Eight Sakhis as Her Projected Self, i.e. the Counter-Whole projecting out into Eight Associate Counter-Parts called Ata-Sakhis of Eight Inseparable lady-friends of Sri Radhika. Hence Mahabhava can partially be manifest in the Eight Sakhis, known as Lalita, Visakha, Citra, Indulekha, Campakalata Rangadevi, Tungavidya and Sudevi. And individual finite self, Jiva-atma, cannot attain Maha-bhava, Anu-Raga or Raga. The individual soul being a "separated part of Lord Sri Krsna and a marginal potency", according to the philosophy of Sri Caitanya, such an individual self in its stage of freedom from bondage and in the stage of self-realisation and God-realisation, is limited by its very essential nature to be in subordination to the Eternal-Counter Whole and Associated Counter-Parts of the Supreme Lord, called Ragatmikas. So the stage of Prema, even Madhura-Prema that is attainable by a Jiva-atma is called Raganuga-Bhakti, i.e. their Prema Sneha, Mana, Pranaya, Raga Anu-Raga are subservient to the Asraya Vigrahas, i.e. the Raganuga Bhakti of an individual soul can only be in subordination to and submissive to the Ragatmikas, the Eternal Counter-Whole Manifestations of the Lord. In this Raganuga Prema the individual soul finds her highest fulfillment in the Realm of Prema.

Sri Radhika possesses in Herself in fullness all the qualities of the Eight Nayikas (The Transcendental; Mistress in Her Eight different Moods towards Her Beloved), and at the same time She distributes Her Eight Aspects of Nayika in eight different Moods in Her Own Projected Bodies, called the Eight Sakhis. Sri Radhika is the Supreme Asraya or Object of Mahabhava. Mahabhava is, therefore, not possible in others, not even the Queens of Dvaraka or in Laksmi in Vaikuntha. Mahabhava is the essential nature of the Hladini Aspect of the Intrinsic Potency of Sri Krsna Himself. The effect of even a drop of the Bliss of Mahabhava of Sri Radhika flows not merely into every sadhaka and siddha but also inundates the entire universe. There could be no ananda or bliss even in its mundane form and no human and animal pleasure without it.

MAHABHAVA is of two kinds, viz. (i) Rudha, and (ii) Adhi-Rudha.

  1. Rudha-Mahabhava: When Mahabhava glows and is brightened with the external manifestations of the eight sattvika-bhavas of the internal sentiments, viz. Tears, horripilation or thrill, stupor or motionless, perspiration, hoarseness of voice or indistinctiveness of utterances, tremor or heaving of breasts, change of complexion or paleness, and swoon or loss of consciousness or syncope or a fainting-fit, and when five or six of these eight sattvika-bhavas are simultaneously and fully manifest and the rest partially, then it s called Rudha-Mahabhava.

The following are the Anu-bhavas, i.e., bhavas, or feelings that follow in the wake of the Rudha-Mahabhava, which are the external expressions of the internal sentiments in appropriate symptoms, such as look, gestures, etc.:---

  1. separation even for the twinkling of the eye becomes unbearable;
  2. even a period of a Kalpa of union-pleasure appears to pass swiftly like the twinkling of an eye:
  3. even a moment of separation appears like a very very long period of many Kalpas;
  4. stirs the hearts of persons nearby:
  5. to have a feeling of unhappiness even when Sri Krsna is absolutely satiated, lest Sri Krsna’s desires should still remain burning;
  6. forgetfulness of oneself and one’s belongings even in a state of consciousness

(ii) Adhi-Rudha Mahabhava: When in Mahabhava all the eight sattvika-bhavas, mentioned above, are completely and to the utmost extent manifest and culminate in a unique experience, it is called Adhi-Rudha mahabhava, which has two forms, viz. (a) Modana, and (b) Madana.

  1. Modana–in separation. When the conditions of Modana become uncontrolled and paralysed in separation, and when all the eight sattvika-bhavas, i.e. (1) stupor or motionless, (2) perspiration, (3) horripilation or thrill, (4) cracking of voice or indistinctness of utterances, (5) tremor or heaving of breasts, (6) change of complexion or paleness, (7) tears, and (8) swoon or loss of consciousness or syncope or a fainting-fit, are fully and all at-once manifest in all their fascinating bewilderment, it is called Mohana. The following are the Anu-bhavas, i.e. the eternal manifestations of internal sentiments by appropriate symptoms such as look, gesture, etc. in the Mohana aspect of the Modana Adhi-Rudha Mahabhava:--

  1. When the state of Mohan is aroused in Sri Radhika in Her state of separation, then Sri Krsna Himself faints even while He is the supra-mundane embrace of Other Spiritual Damsels in far off places. The Supreme Lord, Who is the Creator and Preserver of all the three worlds and with the twinkling of Whose eyes the entire universe has its dissolution–even He swoons at this extraordinary Mohana state of Sri Radhika! It is simply inconceivable to any human thought or imagination.
  2. In this state of Mohan, in spite of the agonising pangs of separation, Sri Radhika thinks only of the happiness of Sri Krsna;
  3. When these conditions are created in Sri Radhika, the entire universe is enveloped by a thick cloud of agonising sorrow;
  4. In this separation, even the lower animals like fishes, etc. begin to weep!
  5. In this state of intense pang of love-sickness in separation, and when She is, as it were, no longer alive, Sri Radhika Herself invokes the tenth or last condition, viz., Her Own Death, and She desires that the five elements of Her Body might, on Her Death, prove to be useful for the service of Her Beloved Lord!
  6. This Mohana is unique in Sri Radhika only, Who is the Counter-Whole Divinity, an this can be possible in none else,--not even Candravali or other Eight Sakhis of Sri Radhika, much less in any finite self;
  7. When Mohana reaches its climax in an inexpressible condition attaining to a surpassing mood of mistaken delusion, then it is called "Divya Unmad" or divine madness;
  8. This Divya-Unmad or divine intoxication is expressive in manifold forms, out of which (I) Udghurna and, (ii) Citrajalpa are outstanding.

    1. An inexplicable effort in an impossible state of uncontrol over a wonder-struck condition of Mohana is Called Udghurna, i.e. an unthinkable whirling motion as in giddiness.
    2. When many a conflicting emotional raving of unfair arguments is resorted to by Sri Radhika out of a concealed and incomprehensible resentment at the union of Her Beloved Lord Sri Krsna with His other Transcendental Darlings, and at the end of which when an inrush of extreme anxiety is aroused in Her, such a state of Sri Radhika is called Citrajalpa.

There are ten such different ravings of Sri Radhika in Her supreme state of Mohana-Prema:---

  1. PRAJALPA: This is manifest in wondrous Prema-dalliance. In Prajalpa, the Supreme Object of Prema (Asraya) Sri Radhika, belches out, as it were, at the worthlessness of Her Beloved Lord by way of various modes of intertwining of Her fingers and sweet gesticulations out of contempt combined with calumny, envy and pride!
  2. PARIJALPA: In this condition, Sri Radhika points out and tries to establish the various short-comings in Her Beloved Krsna, such as heartlessness, fraudulence, insincerity, fickleness, etc., and declares Her Own discreet Wisdom! This is called Parijalpa.
  3. VIJALPA: In this condition, Sri Radhika hides in Her heart Her deep love-anger, and openly makes all sorts of adverse criticism of Her Beloved Lord out of sheet malevolence! It is called Vijalpa.
  4. UJJALPA: When out of Her jealousy grown out of pride, Sri Radhika describes the various instances of insincerity of Her Beloved Lord and cast aspersions against Him, it is called Ujjalpa!
  5. SANJALPA: In this condition, Sri Radhika uses imperious, harsh and slashing words, and calls her Beloved Lord "ungrateful"! This is Sanjalpa.
  6. AVAJALPA: In this condition of Citrajalpa, Sri Radhika, out of Her menacing envy, describes Her vain attempts to withdraw Her attachment (Asakti) from Her Most Beloved Lord even after realising His stony heart, blind passions and trickery! This is Avajalpa.
  7. ABHIJALPA: In this condition, Sri Radhika bemoans the behavior of Her Beloved Lord, which pains even the birds! This is Abhijalpa.
  8. AJALPA: In this condition, owing to absolute indifference to everything, and in self-repentance, Sri Radhika describes the insincerity and pain-giving nature of Her Beloved Lord, and She refuses by gestures of Her Limbs even to listen to the tidings of Her Most Beloved Sri Krsna! This is called Ajalpa.
  9. PRATIJALPA: In this condition, Sri Radhika bemoans that when Her Beloved Lord cannot live even for a moment without the company of other Nayikas, then it will be unwise for a Mistress to seek union with Him, and in the same breath She cordially welcomes the Messenger from Her Beloved! It is called Pratijalpa.

10) SUJAPLA: In this condition, Sri Radhika, because of Her inherent simplicity of the heart, enquires again from the imaginary Messenger of Sri Krsna with mental composure, modesty of character and tremulousness of the whole mental quantum, about the welfare of Her Most Beloved Lord Sri Krsna! This is Sujalpa.

All these ten conditions of Citrajalpa in the Mohana state of Adhi-rudha-Mahabhava of Sri Radhika have been described in the famous "Bhramara-Giti" in the Bhagavatam, Canto X, Chapter 47, Slokas 12-21, when Sri Radhika in her state of citrajalpa addressed a large black bee, mistaking it to be a Messenger from her Cruel Beloved!

  1. Madana Mahabhava: When al the sentiments starting from Rati (Sthayi-bhava Madhura-rati), which is the essence of Hladini Potency of Sri Krsna–the gladdening Potency, and going up to Mahabhava are pleasantly and fully bloomed, and when such a state excels all the aspects of Modana and Mohana in Adhi-rudha Mahabhava, then it is know as Madana. This is possible only in Sri Radhika.

The various movement of Madana are as complex and difficult as Sri Krsna Himself. Even Sri Bharata Muni and Sri Sukadeva Goswami, who wrote on the Rasa, failed to explain it fully and clearly. Madana-Mahabhava appears in the Union between the transcendental and supra-mundane (aprakrta) Subject (Visaya) and Object (Asraya)–Sri Krsna and Sri Radhika only. There are thousands of shades of this eternal pastime of Prema and its active functioning’s. The wondrous and extraordinary manifestations of Madana are impossible elsewhere. In other aspects of Madhura-rati, the conditions of
separation" and "union" exist differently, and they are also differently and distinctly felt. For example, in "union" Sri Radhika realises and feels that She is being enjoyed by the Supreme Lord and that She is the "Object" of this Divine Union, while in the pang of "separation", She realises that She is a Mistress separated from Her Beloved. But in Madana-Mahabhava, there is the simultaneous feeling of manifold shades of pleasures in "Union" and limitless ripples of pangs in "separation". Even when She realises the various expressions of Prema-dalliance, such as embrace etc., She experiences at the same time various degrees of pang of separation. There is simultaneous separation in union and union in separation. This has absolutely nothing to do with mundane love or physical existence. It is incomprehensible to human imagination. It is the highest super-excellence of the Divine Love in the Realm of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna.

The Anu-Bhavas, i.e. the bhavas or feelings that follow in the wake of Madana-Mahabhava of Sri Radhika are:---

  1. to be envious of the unenviable Flute and Forest-Flower-garland when they are found in the Body of Sri Krsna!
  2. to sing the fortune of any blade of grass or any little creeper of Vraja when it may have accidentally been touched by the Feet of Sri Krsna even though She Herself may at that moment be uninterruptedly in the close embrace of the Lord!
  3. to feel a simultaneous pleasure at the reciprocal functioning of all the Senses of the Lord in relation to Her, i.e. all the cit Senses of the Object-Divinity relishing all the reciprocal supra-mundane Senses of the Subject-Divinity as well as every Sense possessing the capacity of every other Sense. This most supreme conception of PREMA as MADANA-MAHABHAVA is possible in SRI RADHIKA alone. This is the supreme climax of Divine PREMA, which was never before known in this world, and it was the unique contribution that Sri Krsna-caitanya-deva made known to the people of the Kali age. It was possible for Sri Krsna-Caitanya, because He was Sri Krsna Himself appearing with the MAHABHAVA of Sri Radhika so that the Lord Himself could relish it.

As a finite self is not eligible for Mahabhava, Sri Rupa Gosvami has dealt with the conception of Uttama-Bhakti or Bhakti which is of the purest and highest type in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu for the spiritual benefit of all; and Mahabhava and Ujjvala-Rasa have been discussed separately in his Ujjvala-Nilamani so that Mukta Jivas or freed souls could aspire after Prema-rasa in subservience to the Ragatmikas or the Eternally Associated Parts and Counter-Wholes of the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna.

If our English rendering of the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu will help our readers in understanding the true character of unalloyed Bhakti, the Lord will bless us. With this humble prayer, we place this book before unbiased readers of the English-knowing world.

Continue to next segment:

A Generic Character of Bhakti

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