The next day, Vijaya Kumara, having honored prasada, came to Sri Guru Gosvami’s lotus feet at the appointed time. As he offered his sastanga-dandavat-pranama, he became overwhelmed with excitement. Gosvamiji lifted him up, embraced him, and very affectionately made him sit beside him. Vijaya Kumara seized the opportunity and said, “Prabhu, I want to know about the uddipana of madhura-rasa. Will you be so kind as to explain this to me?” Sri Guru Gosvami replied, “The uddipana-vibhavas in madhurarasa are the following: the guna (qualities) of Krsna and His beloved gopis, their names (nama), activities and character (carita), ornaments (mandana), things related to the object of love (sambandhi), and things that are not directly related to the object of love (tatastha).”
Vijaya: Please describe the guna first.
Gosvami: There are three types of guna: relating to the mind (manasika), speech (vacika) and the body (kayika).
Vijaya: What are the various types of qualities that relate to the mind (manasa-guna) in this rasa?
Gosvami: There are many kinds of manasa-guna, such as gratefulness, forgiveness and compassion.
Vijaya: What are the different types of vacika-guna?
Vijaya: What are the different types of bodily qualities (kayikaguna)?
Gosvami: The kayika gunas are vayasa (age), rupa (form), lavanya
(luster), saundarya (beauty), abhirupata (influence), madhurya
(sweetness), marddva (softness), and so on. The four divisions of
age that have taken shelter of madhura-rasa are vayah-sandhi, navyavayasa,
vyakta-vayasa and purna-vayasa.
Vijaya: What is vayah-sandhi?
Gosvami: Vayah-sandhi is the juncture between the stage of childhood (balya) and youth (yauvana), and this particular stage is called prathama-kaisora. The stage of full youth (sampurna-kisora) is included within vayah-sandhi. Pauganda (childhood up to ten years old) can be called balya. The sweetness of the vayah-sandhi of Krsna and His beloveds is uddipana.
Vijaya: What is navya-vayasa (sprouting)?
Gosvami: The symptoms of navya-vayasa include the arrival of fresh youthfulness (nava-yauvana), slight appearance of the breasts, restlessness of the eyes, gentle smiles, and somewhat agitated hearts.
Vijaya: What is vyakta-vayasa (revealed)?
As Vijaya Kumara was asking this question, a Vaisnava from the Ramanuja-sampradaya and a pandita-sannyasi from the Sankara Matha arrived there to take darsana of the Deity. The Vaisnava had the conception of being a male servant of Bhagavan, and the Sankara sannyasi was absorbed in dry meditation on the impersonal nirvisesa-brahma, so neither of them could identify themselves as being a vraja-gopi. Since it is forbidden to discuss rasa-katha in the presence of people who consider themselves male, Gosvami and Vijaya both became silent, and then began to engage in ordinary small talk about various things with the Vaisnava newcomer and the ekadandi sannyasi. After a short time, the two visitors set off in the direction of Siddha-bakula, and Vijaya repeated his question, smiling slightly.
Gosvami: In the stage known as vyakta-vayasa, the gopis’ breasts become quite prominent, their bellies have three folds, and all their limbs begin to shimmer with an effulgent luster.
Vijaya: What is purna-vayasa (full)?
Gosvami: Purna-vayasa is the stage at which the buttocks become highly developed, the waist becomes thin, all the limbs become lustrous, the breasts become heavy, and the thighs resemble the trunks of banana trees. A few particular vraja-sundaris also exhibit the features of purna-yauvana in their earlier youth.
Gosvami: Rupa is such extraordinary beauty that a woman appears to be decorated, even though she is not wearing any ornaments. Exquisite rupa occurs when all the limbs are in perfect proportion.
Vijaya: What is lavanya?
Vijaya: What is saundarya?
Gosvami: Saundarya is the bodily perfection in which each and every one of the bodily limbs is appropriately shaped and in ideal proportion to the others.
Vijaya: What is abhirupata?
Gosvami: One is said to have abhirupata when one’s astonishing
qualities cause nearby objects to attain the same beauty as one’s
Vijaya: What is madhurya?
Gosvami: Madhurya is bodily beauty that is simply indescribable.
Vijaya: What is marddva?
Gosvami: Marddva is softness which is unable to tolerate even the
touch of soft things. There are three types of marddva: uttama,
madhyama and kanistha.
Vijaya: Prabhu, I have understood guna. Now please tell me about nama.
Gosvami: Names such as Radha-Krsna, which are full of supremely mysterious and confidential rasa, are called nama.
Vijaya: Now kindly tell me about carita (behavior).
Gosvami: There are two types of carita: anubhava and lila. I will tell you about anubhava when I have completed the subject of vibhava.
Vijaya: Then please describe lila.
Gosvami: The term lila refers to sundara-krida (beautiful games) and activities, tandava (dancing), venu-vadana (playing the flute), go-dohana (milking the cows), and calling them down from the hill and counting them.
Vijaya: What are sundara-krida?
Gosvami: There are unlimited sportive pastimes, such as rasa-lila, ball games, and speaking in the languages of the birds and animals.
Vijaya: How many types of mandana (decorations) are there?
Gosvami: There are four types of mandana: clothes, ornaments, garlands, and anulepana (pastes and perfumes that are smeared on the body).
Vijaya: What is sambandhi?
Gosvami: Sambandhi has been divided into two types: things that are connected (lagna) and things that are nearby (sannihita). Vijaya: What does lagna (auspicious occurences) mean? Gosvami: Lagna-sambandhi includes the sounds of the flute and the bugle, singing, fragrances, the tinkling of ornaments, footprints, the sound of the vina, and artistic skill.
Vijaya: What is the nature of the flute’s melody?
Gosvami: The stream of nectar that comes out from Krsna’s lips through the murali is prominent among all types of uddipana.
Vijaya: Now please describe things that are nearby (sannihitasambandhi).
Gosvami: Sannihita-sambandhi include remnant garlands, peacock feathers, gairika (red stone) and other colored minerals from the hills, the cows, the stick, the bugle, the sight of Krsna’s dear associates, the dust raised by the hooves of the cows, Vrndavana, entities and objects in the shelter of Vrndavana (vrndavanasritavastu), Govardhana, Yamuna, and the rasa-sthali.
Vijaya: What is meant by vrndavanasrita (in the shelter of Vrndavana)?
Gosvami: Animals such as deer, birds such as the peacock, bumblebees,
groves of flowering vines, tulasi, flowers, and kadamba trees
are all vrndavanasrita.
Vijaya: What is meant by tatastha (marginal)?
Gosvami: Moonbeams, clouds, lightning, the spring season, autumn,
the full moon, the breezes, and birds such as the peacock
are all tatastha.
After hearing attentively about the uddipana-bhavas, Vijaya Kumara was silent for a while. The meeting of alambana with uddipana-bhavas aroused an exalted sentiment within his heart, and at once anubhavas began to manifest in his body. In a voice choked with emotion he said, “Prabhu, now kindly describe the anubhavas in detail. You have explained one part of krsna-carita (Krsna’s activities and qualities), namely lila. When I learn about anubhava, I will be able to know about krsna-carita completely. Gosvami: There are three types of anubhavas: alankara (ornaments), udbhasvara (symptoms), and vacika (verbal).
Vijaya: What is alankara (ornament)?
Gosvami: The twenty types of alankaras of the attractive gopis of Vraja in their youth (yauvana) have been called sattva-ja (arising from suddha-sattva). These manifest wonderfully because of intense absorption in their beloved Krsna. These twenty types of alankara have been divided into three categories:
1. those arising from the limbs (anga-ja),
2. those that arise spontaneously (ayatna-ja), and
3. those that arise from one’s own nature (svabhava-ja).
The alankaras arising from the limbs (anga-ja) are: 1) seed attachment (bhava), 2) gestures (hava) and 3) amorous dalliance (hela). Ayatna-ja includes 4) beauty (sobha), 5) luster (kanti), 6) brilliance (dipti), 7) sweetness (madhurya), 8) boldness (pragalbhata), 9) magnanimity (audarya), and 10) patience (dhairya). Svabhava-ja includes 11) imitating lila, 12) enjoyment (vilasa), 13) a particular mood of dressing (vicchitti), 14) bewilderment (vibhrama), 15) a particular mixture of bhavas (kila-kincita), 16) awakening of longing (mottayita), 17) apparent opposition (kuttamita), 18) disrespect (vivvoka), 19) tenderness (lalita), and 20) bhavas expressed through activity (vikrta).
Vijaya: What is the meaning of bhava in this context?
Gosvami: In ujjvala-rasa, when rati, which is like a seed, appears upon the unagitated citta, its first transformation is called bhava. The untransformed stage of citta is called sattva. When the cause of transformation is present, the original transformation, which is like the first sprouting of a seed, is called bhava.
Vijaya: What is hava (gestures)?
Gosvami: Hava is a condition in which rati is more clearly evident than in bhava, with a tilting of the neck, gestures of the eyebrows and eyes, and other symptoms.
Vijaya: What is hela?
Vijaya: What is sobha (beauty)?
Gosvami: Sobha is the beautification of the bodily limbs that arises due to youthfulness and rupa-sambhoga.
Vijaya: What is kanti (luster)?
is the radiant splendor that emanates
in the act of satisfaction of this supernatural
Vijaya: What is dipti?
Gosvami: Kanti is called dipti when it is intensified and becomes highly inflamed with passion through the influence of factors such as age, enjoyment, place, time, qualities, rupa and attire. Vijaya: What is madhurya (sweetness)?
Gosvami: Madhurya is the stage in which every endeavor is exquisitely elegant under all circumstances.
Vijaya: What is pragalbhata (boldness)?
Gosvami: Pragalbhata is a complete lack of inhibition or fear at the time of prayoga, when one’s own bodily limbs are on top of the limbs of one’s lover.
Vijaya: What is audarya (magnanimity)?
Gosvami: Audarya is the quality of being self-controlled and courteous in all situations.
Vijaya: What is dhairya (steadiness)?
Gosvami: The tendency of the heart is called dhairya when it is steady and unwavering.
Vijaya: What is the meaning of lila in this context?
Gosvami: Lila is imitating the charming attire and activities of one’s beloved.
Vijaya: What is vilasa (enjoyment)?
Gosvami: The particular suggestive expressions of the face and eyes that one makes while moving, standing still or sitting, to bring about union with one’s beloved are called vilasa.
Vijaya: What is vicchitti?
Gosvami: Vicchitti is a way of dressing that enhances one’s splendor, although employing very little in the way of decorations and ornaments. According to the opinion of some experts in rasa, sometimes, when a nayika’s lover approaches her after He has committed an offense against her, the bhava arises in her heart that her ornaments are simply a burden and she has only dressed and decorated herself on the insistence of her sakhis. This sort of jealous and neglectful mood is also called vicchitti.
Vijaya: What is vibhrama (bewilderment)?
Gosvami: Vibhrama is a state of bewilderment that is caused by the powerful urges of madana when the nayika meets with her beloved.
In this state, she intends to put on her necklace, garland and other
ornaments in particular places, but actually puts them on in
Vijaya: What is kila-kincita?
Gosvami: Kila-kincita is the condition in which pride, hankering, weeping, laughing, hostility, fear and anger arise at the same time because of feelings of jubilation.
Vijaya: What is mottayita?
Gosvami: Mottayita is the intense longing that arises in the nayika’s heart when she receives news about her lover and remembers Him.
Vijaya: What is kuttamita?
Gosvami: Kuttamita is the anger that the nayika feigns externally due to dignity, shyness and so on – although she is delighted within her heart – when her lover touches her breast or lips. Vijaya: What is vivvoka?
Gosvami: Vivvoka is disrespect shown towards one’s lover out of pride and mana.
Vijaya: What is lalita?
Gosvami: Lalita is the tenderness that is expressed by movements of the eyebrows and gestures of all the bodily limbs.
Vijaya: What is vikrta?
Gosvami: Vikrta is the expression by activities – rather than in words – of moods such as shyness, jealousy or mana that arise within the heart.
These are the twenty bodily and psychological alankaras. Rasikabhaktas have also accepted two more alankaras in addition to the ornaments that I have already mentioned. These are feigned ignorance (maugdhya) and feigned fear (cakita).
Vijaya: What is maugdhya?
Gosvami: A nayika exhibits maugdhya when she pretends to be unaware of something that she actually knows perfectly well, and inquires from her lover as if in ignorance.
Vijaya: Now please tell me about cakita.
Gosvami: Cakita is making a show of being very afraid in the lover’s presence, although one is actually not afraid at all.
Vijaya: Prabhu, I have understood the alankaras. Now, please instruct me about udbhasvara.
Gosvami: When the bhava of the heart is manifest in the body, the manifestation is called udbhasvara. In madhura-rasa, the udbhasvaras include a slackening or slipping of the drawstrings of one’s skirt, loosening of the blouse, disarray of the braids and so on, an affliction in the body, yawning, a flaring of the nostrils, sighing deeply, restlessness, singing, and condemning oneself.
Vijaya: Couldn’t all the udbhasvaras you have just described be considered within the categories of mottayita and vilasa?
Gosvami: They have been described separately because they enhance a special type of beauty (sobha).
Vijaya: Prabhu, now please kindly explain the vacika-anubhavas.
Gosvami: There are twelve types of vacika-anubhavas: alapa, vilapa,
samlapa, pralapa, anulapa, apalapa, sandesa, atidesa, apadesa, upadesa,
nirdesa and vyapadesa.
Vijaya: What is alapa?
Gosvami: Alapa is pleasing words of flattery.
Vijaya: What is vilapa?
Gosvami: Vilapa is words uttered out of sorrow.
Vijaya: What is samlapa?
Gosvami: Samlapa is conversation.
Vijaya: What is pralapa?
Gosvami: Pralapa is meaningless talk.
Vijaya: What is anulapa?
Gosvami: Anulapa means to utter the same words repeatedly.
Vijaya: What is apalapa?
Gosvami: Apalapa means giving another meaning to words that have already been spoken.
Vijaya: What is sandesa?
Gosvami: Sandesa is sending a message to one’s lover when He has gone to another land.
Vijaya: What is atidesa?
Gosvami: Atidesa is saying, “His words are my words.”
Vijaya: What is apadesa?
Gosvami: Apadesa is expressing the subject in question through other words, and not speaking about it directly.
Vijaya: What is upadesa?
Gosvami: The term upadesa refers to words full of instruction.
Vijaya: What is nirdesa?
Gosvami: Nirdesa is confessing, “I am that very person.”
Vijaya: What is vyapadesa?
Gosvami: Vyapadesa is revealing the desire of one’s heart on the pretext of saying something else.
All these anubhavas are present in all the rasas, but they have been described in this context because the sweetness of ujjvalarasa is more greatly enhanced by these anubhavas.
Vijaya: Prabhu, why is it necessary to describe the anubhavas separately in the subject of rasa?
Gosvami: The bhavas in the heart that have arisen from the combination of alambana and uddipana are called anubhavas when they manifest on the bodily limbs. This subject cannot be understood clearly without explaining them separately.
Gosvami: I mentioned the eight sattvika-bhavas, such as stambha, sveda and so on, while I was talking about ordinary rasa-tattva. They are also the sattvika-bhavas of this rasa, but the examples of these bhavas are quite different in this rasa.
Vijaya: How are they different?
Gosvami: You will see that in vraja-lila, becoming stunned (stambha-bhava) arises out of jubilation (harsa), fear (bhaya), wonder (ascarya), despondency (visada), and indignation (amarsa). Perspiration (sveda) arises from jubilation, fear and anger (krodha). Horripilation (romanca) comes from wonder, jubilation and fear. Faltering of the voice occurs due to despondency, astonishment (vismaya), indignation, and fear. Fear, jubilation, and indignation cause trembling. Changing colour (vaivarnya) arises from despon- dency, anger, and fear. Shedding of tears (asru) may occur due to jubilation, anger, or despondency. Loss of consciousness (pralaya) may occur due to happiness or distress.
Vijaya: Are there any manifestations of sattvika-vikara in this rasa that are different from those in the other rasas?
Gosvami: Yes. I have explained the sattvika-bhavas known as dhumayita, jvalita, dipta and uddipta in the context of general (sadharana) rasa-vicara. In this madhura-rasa, there is one division of uddipta called suddipta-bhava.
Vijaya: Prabhu, you have been unlimitedly merciful to me. Now please tell me how the vyabhicari bhavas are manifested in this rasa.
Gosvami: Almost all of the thirty-three sancari or vyabhicari-bhavas that I have already explained to you, beginning with self-disparagement (nirveda), occur in madhura-rasa. Ferociousness (augrya) and laziness (alasya) are the two exceptions. The sancari-bhavas of madhura-rasa have several wonderful features.
Vijaya: What are they?
Gosvami: The most fascinating feature is that whatever type of krsna-prema is present in the friends and elders (guru-jana) in the other rasas is also attained as a sancari-bhava in madhura-rasa. In other words, the sthayibhavas of those other rasas act as sancari or
vyabhicari-bhavas in this rasa.
Vijaya: What are the other surprising aspects?
Gosvami: Another wonderful point is that the vyabhicari-bhavas in this rasa – even those such as marana (death) – are not considered direct angas of rasa. Quite logically, in this rasa they have been counted among the attributes (gunas) of the rasa. The conclusion is that rasa itself is the guni (that which possesses the attributes), and the vyabhicari-bhavas are the attributes (guna) that it possesses.
Vijaya: How do the sancari-bhavas arise?
Gosvami: Self-disparagement (nirveda) arises from distress, aversion, jealousy, despondency, calamity, and offense.
Vijaya: What is the cause of humility (dainya)?
Gosvami: Dainya comes from sorrow, fear, and offense.
Vijaya: How does debility (glani) arise?
Gosvami: Glani is the result of exertion, anxiety, and amorous endeavors.
Vijaya: How does exhaustion (srama) arise?
Gosvami: Srama is the result of so much wandering, dancing, and amorous exertion.
Vijaya: What is the cause of intoxication (mada)?
Gosvami: Mada is induced by drinking honey-wine.
Vijaya: How does pride (garva) appear?
Gosvami: Garva comes from good fortune, beauty, personal attributes, obtaining shelter of the most excellent person, and the attainment of the object of one’s desire.
Vijaya: What causes apprehension (sanka)?
Gosvami: The causes of sanka are theft, offense, cruelty, lightning, ferocious animals, and fearsome sounds.
Vijaya: How does agitation and uncertainty (avega) arise?
Gosvami: Avega is an acute uncertainty about what to do, which arises from seeing or hearing the object of one’s affection or of one’s aversion.
Vijaya: What is the cause of madness (unmada)?
Gosvami: Unmada can be caused by excessive ecstasy (mahananda) or by feelings of separation.
Vijaya: Why does confusion or absence of mind (apasmrti) occur?
Gosvami: Apasmrti is the confusion or absence of mind that arises from utter distress.1
1 In this stage the nayika trembles, faints, and falls to the ground.
Vijaya: What is disease (vyadhi)?
Gosvami: Vyadhi is bodily transformation, such as fever, that arises due to apprehension and anxiety.
Vijaya: What is bewilderment (moha)?
Gosvami: Moha is the bewilderment that occurs when the heart is stupefied due to jubilation, separation and sorrow.
Vijaya: What is death (mrtyu)?
Gosvami: There is no mrtyu in this rasa – only the attempt to die.
Vijaya: What is laziness (alasya)?
Gosvami: There is also no alasya in this rasa. Alasya is pretending to be powerless, although one has energy; however, there is not even the slightest room for alasya in Krsna’s service. It may be observed in a secondary sense, though, among the opposing elements.
Vijaya: What is the cause of inertia (jadya)?
Gosvami: Jadya may come about on seeing the object of one’s love, on hearing about Him, or on seeing something that is most undesirable. Jadya may also arise from feelings of separation.
Vijaya: Why does bashfulness (vrida) occur?
Gosvami: Vrida occurs due to meeting for the first time, behaving inappropriately, or because of words of praise or contempt.
Vijaya: What is the cause of avahittha (concealing one’s nature)?
Gosvami: Avahittha is caused by treachery, shyness, duplicity, fear, and dignity.
Vijaya: What is the cause of remembrance (smrti)?
Gosvami: Smrti is the result of seeing something similar, or due to a fixed habit.
Vijaya: How does pondering logical possibilities (vitarka) arise?
Gosvami: Vitarka is the result of investigation and doubt.
Vijaya: What is anxiety (cinta)?
Gosvami: Cinta arises from not attaining what one desires, and from fear of the undesirable.
Vijaya: What is thoughtfulness (mati)?
Gosvami: Mati is reflection or deliberation on something.
Vijaya: What is fortitude (dhrti)?
Gosvami: Dhrti is the steadfastness of the heart that comes from fulfilling one’s aspirations and being free from sorrow.
Gosvami: Harsa is the joyfulness that arises on seeing or attaining the object of one’s cherished desires.
Vijaya: What is eagerness (autsukya)?
Gosvami: Autsukya is the ardent desire to see one’s beloved, and the intense hankering or impatience to attain Him.
Vijaya: What is ferociousness (augrya)?
Gosvami: Violence is called augrya, and it has no place in madhurarasa.
Vijaya: What is indignation (amarsa)?
Gosvami: Amarsa is the intolerance that is expressed because of being disrespected or insulted.
Vijaya: What is enmity (asuya)?
Gosvami: Asuya is resentment of others’ good fortune, and it arises due to good fortune and virtues.
Vijaya: What is the cause of unsteadiness (capala)?
Gosvami: Capala is fickleness or lightness of mind, and it is caused
Vijaya: What is the cause of sleep (nidra)?
Gosvami: Nidra is induced by fatigue.
Vijaya: What is supti?
Gosvami: Supti means dreaming.
Vijaya: What is wakefulness (bodha)?
Gosvami: Bodha is being far from sleep.
Baba Vijaya, in addition to these vyabhicari-bhavas, there are four stages, namely
bhavotpatti, bhava-sandhi, bhava-sabalya and bhavasanti. is the appearance of a bhava, and
bhava-sandhi is the joining together of two bhavas. Sa-rupa-sandhi is the amalgamation of two
bhavas that have the same cause, and bhinna-sandhi is the mixing of bhavas that have arisen
from separate causes. The mixing of many bhavas at once is called bhava-sabalya, and the
destruction or pacification of bhavas is called bhava-santi.
Vijaya now had a complete understanding of the components of madhura-rasa, for he had heard the explanations of its vibhavas, sattvika-bhavas, and vyabhicari-bhavas. His heart became overwhelmed with prema, which was, however, somewhat indistinct. Having thoroughly understood this, he fell at the feet of his Gurudeva. Weeping and weeping, he said, “Prabhu, please bestow your mercy on me, and tell me why prema has still not blossomed in my heart.”
Guru Gosvamiji embraced Vijaya and said, “You will be able to understand prema-tattva tomorrow. You have understood the components of prema, but it still has not yet arisen distinctly in your heart. Prema is the sthayibhava. You have already heard about sthayibhava in a general way, but you will attain all perfection when you hear specifically about the sthayibhava in ujjvala-rasa. Now it has become very late. I will explain further tomorrow.” Tears began to fall from Vijaya’s eyes again. He offered his dandavat-pranama and then returned to his residence, deeply pondering all that he had heard.