Parishads: Raghunatha Dasa Goswami,
Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami
and Krishnadasa Kaviraja Goswami

by Srila Bhakti Ballabh Tirtha Maharaja

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Srila Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami

raghunathakhyako bhattah pura ya raga-maïjari krita-shri-radhika-kunda-kutira-vasatih sa tu
In Krishna-lila, Raghunath Bhatta, who made his home in a cottage by Radha Kund, was Raga Manjari. (Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika 185)

Serving the Lord in Benares

In around 1503 AD, Raghunath Bhattacharya appeared as the son of Tapana Mishra, a dear devotee of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu who hailed from the village of Ramapura on the banks of the Padma River in East Bengal. Mahaprabhu first met Tapana Mishra when he went to East Bengal during his career as a teacher of Sanskrit. Tapana Mishra had studied many scriptures but was still bewildered about the purpose of life and what to do to attain it. He had a dream in which he was instructed by a Brahmin to go to Nimai Pandit who would clarify these matters for him.

In around 1503 AD, Raghunath Bhattacharya appeared as the son of Tapana Mishra, a dear devotee of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu who hailed from the village of Ramapura on the banks of the Padma River in East Bengal. Mahaprabhu first met Tapana Mishra when he went to East Bengal during his career as a teacher of Sanskrit. Tapana Mishra had studied many scriptures but was still bewildered about the purpose of life and what to do to attain it. He had a dream in which he was instructed by a Brahmin to go to Nimai Pandit who would clarify these matters for him. When Tapana Mishra when to the Lord and told him of his dream, Nimai answered that Harinama-sankirtana was both the purpose of life and the means for attaining it. Tapana Mishra expressed his desire to come and live in Nabadwip near the Lord, but Mahaprabhu told him to go to Benares instead, assuring him that he would see him there one day. Thus, several years later, when passing through Benares on his way back from Vrindavan, Mahaprabhu stayed at Chandrasekhara Vaidya’s house and took his meals with Tapana Mishra.

The Lord had three devotees in Benares. One was Chandrasekhara Vaidya, another Tapana Mishra. The third was Tapana Mishra’s son Raghunath Bhattacharya. The Lord met with them when he stopped in Kashi after visiting Vrindavan. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 1.11.152-3)

Sri Raghunath Bhatta Goswami lived at home for about 28 years. During the two months that the Lord spent in Benares, Raghunath had many opportunities to personally serve him and to receive his mercy.

Mahaprabhu stayed in the house of Chandrasekhara for two months’ time, daily taking his meals at Tapana Mishra’s residence. Raghunath was just a boy at the time, but he served the Lord by cleaning his place after he ate and by massaging his feet. When he grew up, he went to Puri to see the Lord. He stayed there for eight months, occasionally cooking for the Lord. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 1.11.154-6)

Raghunath Comes to Puri

Out of eagerness to see the Lord, Raghunath Bhatta hurried to Puri after visiting Bengal. He was accompanied by a servant who carried his baggage for him. While travelling, he met a certain Rama Das Vishvasa, a Rama devotee initiated in the Ramanandi disciplic succession and very learned in Sanskrit poetics and other scriptures. He was a well-to-do member of the kayastha caste who had an important position in the government treasury as he was trusted by the Shah. Rama Das was travelling to Puri as he wanted to renounce his material entanglements and visit Jagannath Deva. He was constantly chanting the Rama mantra. Knowing Raghunath to be a Brahmin, he took many pains to render service to him, sometimes massaging his feet, sometimes carrying his baggage on his head. Raghunath was somewhat embarrassed that such a rich and important man should be rendering him such menial service, but Rama Das tried to allay his doubts by saying, “I am a lowly shudra and you are a Brahmin. It is my duty to serve you. I feel the greatest joy in having this opportunity to serve you.”

When Raghunath arrived in Puri, he prostrated himself on the ground before the feet of the Lord. The Lord recognized Raghunath and with great emotion lifted him up and embraced him. He inquired after Tapana Mishra and Chandrasekhara Vaidya, then sent him to see Jagannath, telling him to come and eat with him afterward. Mahaprabhu had Govinda make housing arrangements for Raghunath and introduced him to Svarupa Damodar and his other associates.

During the eight months that Sri Raghunath Bhatta Goswami remained in Nilachala, he sometimes had the chance to invite Mahaprabhu for meals. He would take the opportunity to cook delicious vegetable platters for the Lord’s pleasure. He was an expert cook and the Lord was especially satisfied by the devotional mood in which he prepared these meals. Raghunath was then fortunate enough to be able to take the Lord’s remnants. Rama Das Vishvasa also came to meet Mahaprabhu during this time, but the Lord could see through him. He saw that Rama Das harbored desires for liberation and that he was proud of his learning, and so he did not show him as much mercy as he did to Raghunath.

After Raghunath had been in Puri for eight months, the Lord told him to go back to Kashi to serve his Vaishnava parents, who were now aged and infirm. He also told him not to get married. The Lord then made him a gift of his own neckbeads, which he placed around Raghunath’s neck, telling him to come to Puri again.

Raghunath Goes to Vrindavan

Raghunath took care of his parents for the remainder of their lives, which was another four years. During this time, he also studied the Bhagavat from a Vaishnava. When his parents died, he returned to Puri and stayed with Mahaprabhu. After staying with the Lord for eight months, Mahaprabhu told him to go to Vrindavan and to stay with Rupa and Sanatan. He told him to continue studying and giving discourses on the Bhagavat as well as to chant the Holy Names. The Lord then gave him a ten-foot long tulasi garland which had been worn by Lord Jagannath as well as some pan which had none of the intoxicating spices in it. Raghunath was intoxicated with love upon receiving all these kindnesses from the Lord.

Raghunath had a beautiful singing voice. When he recited the Bhagavat, he would read the same verse aloud over and over again, chanting it in different tunes. As soon as they heard it, the devotees were attracted.

“Study Srimad Bhagavatam and chant the names of Krishna continuously. The Supreme Lord Krishna will very soon bestow his mercy upon you.” After saying this, the Lord embraced Raghunath who was enlivened with ecstatic love for Krishna by his mercy. At a feast, the Lord had been given some unspiced betel and a ten-foot garland of tulasi leaves long which had been worn by Lord Jagannath. He gave the garland and betel to Raghunath Bhatta, who accepted them as his worshipable deity, taking care to preserve them. Then Raghunath took the Lord’s permission and departed for Vrindavan.

When he arrived there, he put himself under the care of Rupa and Sanatan Goswamis. Whenever he recited the Bhagavat before Rupa and Sanatan, Raghunath Bhatta would be overwhelmed with ecstatic love for Krishna. By Mahaprabhu’s mercy, he experienced the symptoms of ecstatic love--tears, trembling, and faltering of the voice. His eyes filled with tears, his throat became choked, and thus he would have to stop his recital. His voice was as sweet as a cuckoo's, and he would recite each verse of the Bhagavat in three or four tunes. Whenever he recited or heard about Krishna’s beauty and sweetness, he would be overwhelmed with ecstatic love and become oblivious to the world around him.

Raghunath Bhatta surrendered himself to Govinda’s lotus feet and those lotus feet were the only thing which gave his life meaning. In time, Raghunath Bhatta ordered his disciples to construct a temple for Govinda. He himself made various ornaments for the deity, including a flute and dolphin-shaped earrings.

Raghunath Bhatta would never speak or listen to gossip. He would simply discuss Krishna and worship the Lord day and night. He would not listen to criticism of a Vaishnava’s misbehavior. He knew only that everyone was engaged in Krishna's service. When Raghunath Bhatta Goswami was absorbed in remembrance of Lord Krishna, he would take the prasadi tulasi garland and the neckbeads given to him by the Lord, wearing them aroudn his neck. Thus I have described the power of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s mercy, by which Raghunath Bhatta Goswami experienced unlimited ecstatic love for Krishna. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 3.13.121-135)

The following description is also given of Sri Raghunath Bhatta Goswami is given in the Bhakti-ratnakara:

“As I look upon the samadhi tomb of Raghunath Bhatta, my heart breaks and my eyes are awash with tears. But who is not overjoyed as soon as he hears Raghunath Bhatta Goswami’s glories? He was such an expert teacher of all the scriptures that even Brihaspati would joyfully cheer upon hearing Raghunath’s explanations of Vaishnava doctrine. There is nothing to which his discourses on the Bhagavat can be compared. Even Vyasa himself wishes to sit and listen to him speak, knowing that this will bring him happiness. Even the gods were astonished when they observed his devotional practices.” When the devotees heard Srinivas Acharya glorify Sri Raghunath Bhatta Goswami in this way, they fell to the ground and offered their respects. Then they continued on to the Govindaji temple.

Sri Raghunath Bhatta Goswami disappeared in about 1579 or 1580 AD.

Srila Raghunath Das Goswami

dasa-raghunathasya purvakhya rasa-maïjari
amum kecit prabhashante shrimatim rati-maïjarim
bhanumaty-akhya kecit ahus tam nama-bhedatah
Raghnatha Das is ascribed three different names from his previous identity as a manjari in Krishna-lila: Rasa Manjari, Rati Manjari, and Bhanumati. (Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika 186)

Raghunath’s Childhood

Raghunath Das was born in around 1416 Shaka (1494 AD) in the town of Saptagram in Hooghly district. His actual birthplace was in the village of Krishnapura which is not far south of the current railway station name Adi Saptagram on the eastern bank of the ancient Saraswati River. Krishnapura is about a mile from Adi Saptagram station and approximately 1 miles from Trish Bigha station. [1]

Srila Raghunath Das Goswami was the son of Govardhana Majumdar. His mother’s name is not known. Govardhana’s older brother Hiranya had no male offspring. The two brothers belonged to the kayastha caste and were the primary landholders in Saptagram. In those days, the borders of Saptagram stretched from the Yashohara Bhairava creek almost up to the Rupa Narayan River. Raghunath lived in Saptagram Krishnapura, his uncle Kali Das, who was also Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s devotee, lived in Shankhanagara. Raghunath’s family priest, Balaram Acharya and his guru, Yadunandana Acharya, lived in the town of Chandpura. Yadunandana was a intimate disciple of Advaita Acharya and a dedicated devotee of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu who had also received the special blessings of Vasudeva Datta Thakur.

After delivering the prostitute sent to tempt him by Ramachandra Khan, Hari Das Thakur left Benapole and came to Chandpura where he stayed with Balaram Acharya. Srila Raghunath Das Goswami was just a young boy at this time, but he had the opportunity to see Hari Das Thakur and receive his blessings. Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami says that these blessings were the cause of Raghunath’s later being able to attain the association of Mahaprabhu in the last years of his life.

Raghunath Das was just a little boy engaged in studies he had the darshan of Hari Das Thakur. Hari Das was merciful to him and this mercy was the reason that he later was able to attain the company of Lord Chaitanya.
(Chaitanya Charitamrita 3.3.168-9)

Raghunath’s Desire to Join the Lord

Hiranya and Govardhana Majumdar had an annual income of 800,000 rupees. At that time, a rupee could buy about 650 lbs of rice, which means several hundred times the value of a rupee today. Even though Raghunath was the only heir to this great fortune, he was indifferent to riches from his childhood. He had his first opportunity to see Mahaprabhu when the Lord came to Shantipur after taking sannyas. As soon as he saw the Lord, Raghunath fell to his feet in a transport of divine love. Raghunath’s father, Govardhana Majumdar, always served Advaita Acharya with faith and devotion, and thus Advaita Prabhu was predisposed to show kindness to the young Raghunath. He thus made sure that Raghunath received the Lord’s remnants for as long as he remained in Shantipur.

When the Lord departed for Puri, Raghunath returned to his home in Saptagram, but he had been transformed and was constantly feeling intense separation from the Lord. Seeing him in this condition, his father surrounded Raghunath by a guard of eleven men, including two Brahmins, four servants and five guards. Even so, Raghunath tried on several occasions to run away in order to join the Lord, but each time was caught and brought back before realizing his objectives. Raghunath became progressively depressed as a result of this situation.

In 1513, when the Lord made his attempt to visit Vrindavan, but only managed to get as far as Kanair Natashala, he returned to Shantipur and again stayed there for a short period of time. Raghunath wanted to see the Lord and this time begged his father to give him permission to go to Advaita’s house. Govardhana was worried about the state of his son’s mind and finally decided to let him go on condition that he return quickly. He also sent a large entourage of guards to accompany him.

When Raghunath saw the Lord, it was as though he regained a new lease on life. He told the Lord of the intolerable situation he was living and prayed to him to tell him how he could break free from the bondage of his material existence. The all-knowing Lord could understand the depth of Raghunath’s feeling and yet he tried to pacify him with the following instruction:

“Calm yourself and return home. Don’t be foolish. It takes time to cross the ocean of material suffering. Don’t make a show of “monkey renunciation” (markata-vairagya) simply for other people’s benefit. Enjoy the worldly life in a moderate way without attachment. Be fixed on Krishna internally while externally dealing with the world in the appropriate fashion. It will not be long before Krishna delivers you.” (Chaitanya Charitamrita 2.16.237-9)

Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Goswami Thakur has made the following comments on the word markata-vairagya: “To a superficial eye, monkeys are engaged in renunciation because they live naked in the forest without any fixed home. In fact, they are only interested in their own sensual enjoyment and have never given it up. Such show-bottle renunciation is called markata- vairagya, ‘monkey-renunciation’. Real renunciation comes as a side-effect of pure devotion, and other types of renunciation which arise out of frustration with material pleasures or desires cannot last throughout one’s life. Because of its temporary character, such renunciation is therefore called phalgu, or false. Such temporary renunciation, or monkey renunciation, is also known as shmashana-vairagya, ‘the renunciation of the cremation ground.’ [2]

“One may accept things which are absolutely necessary in order to serve Krishna without becoming absorbed by them or attached to them. If one lives in this way, he will not be under the influence of the karmic reactions resulting from the involvement with sense objects. In the Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu (1.2.108), it is said:

yavata syat sva-nirvahah
svikuryat tavad arthavit
adhikye nyunatayam ca
cyavate paramarthatah
One who knows his purpose should accept only as much as he needs to maintain his existence. If he accepts more or less than that, he will fall from the supreme objective.

Sri Jiva Goswami glosses the word sva-nirvahah in his Durgama- sangamani commentary with the words sva-sva-bhakti-nirvahah, i.e., a devotee should accept only those material things that will help him render service to the Lord, according to his own individual needs. In the Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu (1.2.256), markata-vairagya, or phalgu-vairagya, has been more clearly explained as follows:

prapaïcikataya buddhya
mumukshubhih parityago
vairagyam phalgu kathyate
Phalgu-vairagya is defined as the rejection by one desiring liberation of something which is related to the Lord in the understanding that it is something material.

[As I have written in Vaishnava ke?]: Shri hari-sevaya jâha anukula, vishaya boliya tyage haya bhula-- “It is a mistake to renounce something which is favorable to the service of Lord Krishna, thinking it to be an ordinary material sense object.”

anasaktasya vishayan
yatharham upayuïjatah
nirbandhah krishna-sambandhe
yuktam vairagyam ucyate
Yukta-vairagya is defined as the attitude of one who is detached from the objects of the sense, but uses them only inasmuch as they have utility in the service of Lord Krishna.

[Once again, from Vaishnava ke?] asakti-rahita sambandha sahita vishaya-samuha sakali madhava --- ”All sense objects which are used without personal attachment and in relation to Krishna are identical to Krishna.” Taking Mahaprabhu’s instruction to heart, Raghunath returned home and gave up his feverish desire to renounce material life and instead engaged in his various duties with a sense of detachment. When his parents saw Raghunath abandon all the external signs of renunciation, they were delighted and they began to think that there was no necessity for such a tight guard around their son.

Hiranya Majumdar’s Tax Problems

In those days, there was an officer of the Shah with the title caudhuri or nayeb who acted as an intermediary between the Shah and the zamindars. He collected taxes from the landowners and received a commission of 25% on them. Hiranya Majumdar, however, paid his taxes directly to the Shah, with whom he had a special agreement and thus cut out the middle man. Thus, on an income of 2,000,000 rupees, Hiranya was paying only 1,200,000 rather than 1,500,000, the difference which would normally have been paid to the caudhuri. Since he was losing a large amount of commission, the Turkish Muslim caudhuri became an enemy of the Majumdars. Ever since returning from his meeting with Mahaprabhu, Raghunath was practicing yukta-vairagya in accordance with the Lord’s instructions. However, when he heard that Mahaprabhu had returned from Vrindavan, he started making preparations to join him in Puri. At that time, the caudhuri had started making complaints to the Shah about Hiranya and Govardhana out of anger at being cheated of his percentage of the tax revenue. Fearful of arrest, the two brothers had gone into hiding.

When the minister came to investigate the caudhuri’s complaints, he arrested Raghunath, since his father and uncle were not present. The caudhuri came daily to rebuke and threaten Raghunath, asking him to reveal their whereabouts. Finally he decided to have Raghunath beaten, but when he saw his calm, lotus-like face, he was unable to continue. In fact, though he verbally chastized him, the caudhuri was afraid to cause him any real harm because Raghunath belonged to an influential family of the kayastha class. He knew that the kayasthas are intelligent and could plot against him, causing him worse problems.

Raghunath himself was looking for a way to extricate himself from the situation, and spoke to the caudhuri in a sweet voice: “My father and uncle are like your brothers. The behavior of brothers is difficult to understand--sometimes they fight amongst themselves, sometimes they are loving to each other. Today you are arguing, but tomorrow, I am sure that you will be reconciled with each other. I am your son as much as I am my father’s and therefore you are my protector. It is not right for one such as yourself to punish his dependent. I need say no more, for you know the scriptures and are practically a living saint, a pir.”

The caudhuri was affected by Raghunath’s sweet words and began to cry as he was overcome by affection for him. He said, “From now on, I consider you to be my son. I will find an excuse to have you freed today. Have your uncle meet with me and make arrangements so that I can get my share of the revenues.”

Thus Raghunath was able to mollify the caudhuri by his sweet and diplomatic behavior and bring the dispute between him and his uncle to an end. In the meantime, Raghunath’s father was making arrangements for his son’s marriage to an extremely beautiful girl in order to insure his commitment to the family.

The Danda-mahotsava

A year later, Raghunath once again became anxious to see Mahaprabhu and repeatedly ran away from home in an effort to go to Puri. Each time, he was caught by his father and returned home. Raghunath’s mother thought that her son was going mad and told her husband to place him under guard again. Govardhana responded in defeated tones,

“He has as much wealth as Indra, the king of the gods, and his wife is as beautiful as the heavenly courtesans. If these things have not been able to capture his spirit, then how will mere ropes be able to do so? The father who gives life to a child cannot interfere with the effects of his previous lives’ actions. Sri Chaitanya Candra has given his blessings to this boy. Who can keep prisoner one who was been made mad by Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu?” (Chaitanya Charitamrita 3.6.39-41)

While Raghunath Das was devising a plan for how he would be delivered from his entanglements, he heard that Nityananda Prabhu had made an auspicious appearance in the town of Panihati. Thinking that Nityananda was the deliverer of the most fallen and that by his mercy he would surely be able to find his freedom, he went across the Ganges to Panihati where he found the Lord sitting under a tree on a wooden seat, surrounded by his associates. As soon as Raghunath saw him from a distance, he fell down like a rod. The merciful Lord Nityananda immediately had him brought close to him and, understanding the deep-rooted desires of Raghunath’s heart, arranged for him to perform a service to the Vaishnavas so that he could realize them.

“Like a thief, you don’t come near me, but simply try to run away. Now that I have caught you, I shall punish you. I want you to feed all my followers chipped rice and yogurt.” When he heard Nityananda’s command, Raghunath’s mind was filled with joy. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 3.6.50-1)

The festival which Nityananda ordered Raghunath to put on is still celebrated as the Panihati Ciriadadhi Mahotsava. Nityananda Prabhu and a manifestation of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu himself celebrated the festival, eating on the banks of the Ganges just as though they were cowherd boys on the banks of the Yamuna River. Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Nityananda Prabhu, their associates, numerous Brahmins and countless men and women from the area enjoyed a feast of milk and chipped rice and yogurt and chipped rice. The opportunity to serve the Lord and his devotees in this way was something that could not come about except for some great fortune.

On the following day, Raghunath Das Goswami emotionally asked Nityananda through Raghava Pandit how he could possibly gain freedom from his material entanglements and find the association of Mahaprabhu. Like an ocean of mercy, Nityananda Prabhu placed his feet on Raghunath’s head and said,

“You arranged this feast on the banks of the river and Mahaprabhu was merciful to you and came here himself to enjoy it. He blessed you by accepting the offering of chipped rice and yogurt. Then, after watching the devotees’ dancing, he took prasad in the evening. Lord Gauranga came here just to deliver you and now he has removed any impediments which remained. He will turn you over to Svarupa Damodar and making you his confidential servant, he will keep you by his side. Go home now and forget your worries. You will soon be able to go to the Lord without any difficulties.” (Chaitanya Charitamrita 3.6.139-143)

After discussing with Raghava Pandit, Raghunath gave a large sum of money as dakshina to be paid to Nityananda and his associates. He himself felt as though his life had been fulfilled after receiving Nityananda Prabhu’s blessings. Upon returning to his house, he never again entered the inner quarters, but remained outside where he slept in the Durga Mandapa. Nevertheless, there was always a guard posted near him to prevent him running away.

Raghunath Escapes

Though Raghunath knew that the devotees from Bengal were preparing their annual trip to Puri, he was afraid of joining them because he knew that he would easily be caught. One day, about an hour before dawn, Yadunandana Acharya came by the house while Raghunath was sleeping on the Durga-mandapa. He told Raghunath that a disciple who performed the puja had abandoned his service and needed to be persuaded to take it up again as there was no replacement.

Raghunath accompanied his guru while all the guards were still sleeping. After walking a way with Yadunandana Acharya, however, Raghunath told him to return to his home, saying that he would go alone to the disciple’s house and convince him to come and perform his duties. He told him not to worry and bid him goodbye. With no guards or servants around him, Raghunath realized that he had a golden opportunity to make his escape.

Meditating on Mahaprabhu’s lotus feet, he started to walk toward the east. He avoided the main roads for fear of being caught and even the smaller roads through the villages. Despite the difficult route through the jungle, he walked thirty miles on the very first day, finally taking rest in a milkman’s cowshed that evening. The milkman saw that he had not eaten for the entire day and gave him some milk.

When Govardhana heard that his son had run away, he immediately sent a group of ten servants with a letter for Shivananda Sena who was already on his way to Puri with the devotees, telling him to send Raghunath back. They caught up with the group of pilgrims at a place called Jhankara, but were disappointed to find that Raghunath was not with them. Meanwhile, Raghunath was walking at great speed towards Puri, completely oblivious to his own fatigue and hunger.

Raghunath arrived in Puri after only twelve days, having stopped to eat only three times along the way and resting only infrequently. He came upon Mahaprabhu, who was sitting with Svarupa Damodar, and paid his obeisances to the Lord from a certain distance. Mukunda Datta informed the Lord that Raghunath had arrived and was paying his obeisances. The Lord told him to approach and Raghunath fell at his feet. The Lord embraced him, his heart melting with compassion for the exhausted young man. He said, “Nothing is more powerful than Krishna’s mercy. It has dragged you out of the deep latrine hole of sense gratification.” (Chaitanya Charitamrita 3.6.193) Raghunath answered the Lord mentally, thinking, “I know nothing about Krishna. I believe that it was you who pulled me out of that hole.” Mahaprabhu’s maternal grandfather, Nilambara Chakravarti knew Raghunath’s father and uncle and used to call them bhaya because they were younger than he. They too called him dada (“older brother”) because he was their elder and a Brahmin. Knowing that this relationship existed between them, Mahaprabhu joked with Raghunath, saying:

“Your father and uncle are like worms in the latrine pit of sense gratification. They think that the suffering which comes from sense gratification is happiness. Even though they believe in brahminical culture and contribute to it, they are not pure Vaishnavas, only imitation Vaishnavas. The nature of the sense objects is that they make one blind; they make one engage in activities which result in material bondage. It is not possible to properly describe Krishna’s mercy which has delivered you from such bondage.” (Chaitanya Charitamrita 3.6.197-200)

Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Goswami Thakur has written the following about Krishna’s mercy and the suffering caused by the poison of sense gratification: “Krishna’s mercy is more powerful than the results of one’s previous activities. It was this powerful compassion of the Lord which pulled Raghunath out of the latrine hole of sensual existence. A living entity who is attached to sense gratification does not have the strength to give it up. For the living being who has become a pure devotee of Krishna, however, sense enjoyments are like a ditch of stool. Mahaprabhu knew that Raghunath was completely free from any attachment to sense gratification. Nevertheless, he said this to him as a teaching to the conditioned souls.” (Anubhashya 6.9.193)

“Sense objects (vishaya) bring great distress to their so-called enjoyer (vishayi). Even so, those whose brains are completely immersed in the objects of sense gratification and are entangled in the whirlpool of material existence consider these sources of distress to be happiness. The objects of material sense gratification should be discarded in the same way that one abandons an outhouse, and one whose mind is possessed by the desire for these objects of gratification is like a maggot who feeds off the stools in the latrine. This is how the transcendentalist sees the materialistic person who is trying to extract pleasure from inert matter. He has nothing but disdain for materialistic pleasures which he sees being exactly like the pleasure a maggot extracts from the taste of rotting excrement.” (Anubhashya 6.9.197)

Raghunath’s Renunciation

Mahaprabhu noticed that Raghunath was dirty and weak after his journey and so, after accepting him as his own son and servant, entrusted him to Svarupa Damodar, telling him take responsibility for him and to see to his well-being. He was thenceforth to be known as Svarupa’s Raghunath to distinguish him from Raghunath Vaidya and Raghunath Bhatta, who were also living in Mahaprabhu’s association in Puri at that time. The Lord also told Govinda to take care of Raghunath with great affection. He then told him to go and take his bath in the ocean and go to see Lord Jagannath, after which he was to join him for lunch. When Govinda gave Raghunath the remnants of the Lord’s plate to eat, Raghunath was overjoyed.

Things went on like this for five days, Raghunath taking the Lord’s remnants each day, but on the sixth day, he stopped taking the Lord’s mahaprasada. From that day on, he went to the Jagannath temple and took darshan of the Lord’s flower offering, after which he would stand at the Lion’s Gate and beg maha prasad. At night, after they had finished their duties, Jagannath’s servants would pass by on their way home and would customarily give prasad to any hungry Vaishnavas who waited there. In this way, renounced Vaishnavas could keep body and soul together. This type of renounced attitude was particularly noticeable amongst Mahaprabhu’s devotees.

When the Lord asked after Raghunath and learned that he was no longer taking prasad in the same way as before, but begging by the Simha-dvara, he was satisfied to see that he was taking the renounced way of life so seriously. He said,

“That’s very good. He is taking the life of a renunciate seriously. A renunciate should always be engaged in repeating the names of the Lord and should keep his body and soul together through begging. Anyone who takes the renounced order and then becomes dependent on others cannot achieve his ends and Krishna will ignore him. One who becomes a renunciate and then lusts for tasty foods will never attain his spiritual goal, and will simply become the slave of his tastebuds. A vairagi’s duty is to always chant the names of Lord Krishna and fill his belly with spinach leaves, fruits and roots. One who runs here and there looking for good things to eat becomes attached to his sex organs and his belly and will never attain Krishna.” (Chaitanya Charitamrita 3.6.222-7)

Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Goswami Thakur has underscored Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami’s statement that the vairagi’s only duty is to chant the names of the Lord. He has written the following: “Examining them impartially, both materialistic non-devotees and pure Vaishnavas can see that Mahaprabhu’s associates are not attached to the gratification of their material senses. They are indifferent to anything which cannot be used in the service of Krishna. The reasons for such renunciation are incomprehensible to the ordinary materialistic person, for their service is without any external motive and it cannot be interrupted by any mundane impediment.When Lord Gaurasundara sees a devotee engaged in this kind of devotional service, completely indifferent to sense objects which are outside the scope of his service needs, he is greatly pleased with his clever attitude.

“The various rituals which are described in the Hari-bhakti-vilasa are meant for the wealthy householder and not for the vairagi who has renounced everything to take exclusive shelter of the Holy Name. One who chants the holy names in the morning, in the middle of the night, in the midday and at sunset, in other words throughout the day and night is certain to cross over the ocean of material existence. Those pure devotees who are fixed exclusively on the devotional service of the Lord and chant his names and remember him with love have no duty to perform other than kirtan and smarana.” (Anubhashya 3.6.223, translation of Hbv 20.366, 379, 382).

Srila Raghunath Das Goswami would never speak to the Lord directly, but asked Govinda or Svarupa Damodar to submit any question or request to the Lord on his behalf. One day he asked the Lord through Svarupa Damodar to instruct him personally on his duties. When the Lord heard this, he told Raghunath that Svarupa Damodar knew far more than he did and that he should take instruction from him about the goal of life and how to attain it. When Raghunath’s eagerness to hear from him directly did not abate, the Lord said, “If he has faith in my words, then let him follow these instructions:

“Do not listen to gossip nor engage in gossip yourself. You should not eat very palatable food, nor should you dress very nicely. Always chant the holy name of Lord Krishna without any expectation of honor, offering all respect to others. Mentally render service to Radha and Krishna in Vrindavan.” (Chaitanya Charitamrita 3.6.236-7)

The Bengali devotees arrived in Puri for Rathayatra and met Raghunath, who was particularly fortunate to receive Advaita Prabhu’s blessings. Shivananda Sena told him that his father had been looking for him. After staying four months in Puri, the devotees returned to Bengal and Shivananda gave news of Raghunath to Govardhana Majumdar, telling him of his determined ascetic spiritual practices. Raghunath’s parents were distressed to hear of his lifestyle and sent a Brahmin, two servants and four hundred rupees to Shivananda for Raghunath. The following year, Shivananda took these servants and the money to Puri with him and informed Raghunath that his father had sent them. Raghunath would not accept them, but thinking of his father’s benefit, he took some of the money and used it to pay for Mahaprabhu’s meals twice a month. After doing this for two years, Raghunath abandoned this practice also. In response to Mahaprabhu’s question about why Raghunath had stopped inviting him, Svarupa Damodar said that Raghunath had decided that since his father was a materialistic man, Mahaprabhu was not really pleased to eat the food purchased with his money. By accepting such money his own mind was becoming contaminated and his only gain was some fame and status. Furthermore, he thought that Mahaprabhu was only accepting his invitations out of kindness because Raghunath was so foolish that he would be unhappy if he refused, but that in fact he was secretly not very pleased by it. Mahaprabhu was greatly satisfied to hear this conclusion and said,

“When one eats food offered by a materialistic person, one’s mind becomes contaminated. If the mind is contaminated, one is unable to remember Krishna. The food of a materialistic person is infected by the mode of passion and both the person who offers it and the one who accepts it are mentally contaminated. I accepted Raghunath’s invitation for many days because of his enthusiasm. I am glad that he has realized all this and given up this practice on his own initiative.” (Chaitanya Charitamrita 3.6.278-80)

Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Goswami Thakur has commented on the above events as follows: “People who are egotistical and possessive are generally materialistic persons who try to enjoy the world for their own sense gratification. Such persons see their money as a tool for achieving such sense gratification. If they attempt to serve the Lord, the guru or the Vaishnavas, who are beyond the material energy, their only gain will be an increase in material prestige and not the true benefits of such service. One who seeks true auspiciousness should therefore try to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead by full surrender to his lotus feet and then engaging whatever money one has honestly earned in the spiritual service of Krishna, the spiritual master and the Vaishnavas, using his body, mind, words and heart.” (Anubhashya 3.6.275)

“Certain materialistic persons who are intoxicated by high birth, riches, learning or physical beauty, may make a show of deity worship, offer the prasad from that worship to Vaishnavas. Due to their ignorance, they are not aware that because they lack devotion, the Lord does not accept their offerings. Because of the taint of the sense enjoyer’s false pride which contaminates such offerings, it is often seen that the pure Vaishnava is indifferent to such apparent service to the deity. In other words, a pure Vaishnava who has renounced the life of sense enjoyment does not accept such service. Rich materialistic sense gratifiers are so foolish because of their sense of identification with the body and mind that they become angry with the Vaishnavas and offended by their behavior. (Anubhashya 3.6.276)

“Non-devotees and Prakrita-sahajiyas are considered to be materialistic, or vishayis. Because they offer food without devotion, an aspiring devotee will be contaminated by their association through eating their food. The result of such flaws in association (sanga-dosha), one will develop the same mentality as they. If one engages in even minimal association with materialists or Sahajiyas, who are materialists in the guise of Vaishnavas, through any of the six kinds of association (exchanging gifts, food or confidences), with even a drop of hidden affection, the result will be that the transcendental devotional service of Lord Krishna is transformed into sense gratification, and this will cause the aspiring devotee’s falldown. The conclusion is that one whose mind is fixed on the pleasures of the bodily senses and contaminated by the sense objects is too impure to be able to serve Krishna through the process of transcendental remembrance or smarana.” (Anubhashya 3.6.278)

Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakur has also written about the rajasika character of a materialistic person’s dinner invitations. He says, “Invitations to dinner are of three kinds, sattvika, rajasika and tamasika. The invitation of a pure devotee is in the mode of goodness, that of a pious materialistic person is in the mode of passion, while the invitation of a very sinful person is in the mode of darkness.” (Amrita-pravaha-bhashya, 3.6.279)

Raghunath Goswami’s asceticism grew stronger with each passing day. He stopped begging at the Lion’s Gate and started going instead to an almshouse. When Mahaprabhu heard this news from Govinda, he asked Svarupa Damodar what the cause was for the change. Svarupa Damodar answered that Raghunath was finding that a lot of time was being wasted standing in front of the Simha-dvara and was going to the almshouse every day at noon instead. Mahaprabhu praised Raghunath’s decision, saying, “Begging by the Simha-dvara resembles the behavior of a prostitute.” A prostitute stands around and waits for some man to come and give her some business, a beggar cannot remain indifferent as he waits for someone to be kind to him. Going for handouts at the almshouse does not present the same kind of problem. One simply has to go at the proper time and one receives enough to keep his body alive. This is useful if one wishes to use one’s time in chanting the Holy Names.

The sannyasi Shankarananda Saraswati sent Mahaprabhu a guïja-mala and a Govardhana-shila from Vrindavan. Mahaprabhu cherished the two objects, taking the necklace of guïja beads to be identical to Radharani and the stone from Govardhana to be identical to Krishna. Mahaprabhu would hold the Govardhana-shila to his head, to his eyes and to his heart, and this would bring him great pleasure. After worshiping the necklace and the stone for three years, he decided one day to give them to Raghunath as a sign of his satisfaction with his devotion. Raghunath felt honored and delighted by the Lord’s gift, and taking them to be the direct representations of Shri-Shri-Gandharvika-Giridhari, he worshiped them with water and tulasi leaves. When engaged in such loving service, he would go into a devotional trance. After his disappearance, the Govardhana-shila was placed in the Gokulananda temple where it is still being served.

It is said of Raghunath Das Goswami’s ascetic vows that they were like lines drawn in stone. He spent 21_ hours a day engaged in chanting Krishna’s names and in smarana, only one and a half hours for sleep and food. He only ate enough to keep body and soul together. He allowed no delicious foods to ever touch his tongue, and he wore only a piece of torn cloth and a quilt. Finally, he started going at night to gather the prasad which the vendors outside the temple threw away near the Simha-dvara after it started to go so bad that even the Tailangi cows would not eat it. He would wash it to take out the dirt with which it had become mixed until he reached the hard core of the grains which had not cooked. This is what he would eat, only adding a little salt. One day, Sri Svarupa Damodar Goswami saw Raghunath doing this and came and asked him for some of this prasad, comparing it to the nectar of the gods. Even Mahaprabhu, when he heard about it from Govinda, came and took a handful of Raghunath’s prasad, though Svarupa Damodar prevented him from taking a second.

“What is this all about? You are eating such nice things and not giving any to me?” Saying this, the Lord snatched a morsel from Raghunath and ate it. As he was about to take another Svarupa Damodar caught Him by the hand and said, “It is not fit for you,” and took it away from him. (3.6.322-3)

Srila Raghunath Das Goswami has himself summarized these experiences in his verses called Chaitanya-stava-kalpa-vriksha (“The desire tree of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s glories”) which can be found in the collection called Stavavali.

maha-sampad-davad api patitam uddhritya kripaya
svarupe yah sviye kujanam api mam nyasya muditah
uro-guïja-haram priyam api ca govardhana-shilam
dadau me gaurango hridaya udayan mam madayati
By his mercy, Sri Gauranga took pleasure in delivering me even though I am a fallen soul, the lowest of men, from the blazing forest fire of great material opulence and entrusted me to his personal associate, Svarupa Damodar. He gave me the cherished guïja garland that he wore on his chest as well as his Govardhana shila. And now he awakens within my heart and makes me mad after him. (verse 11)

Raghunath Goes to Vrindavan

Raghunath remained under Svarupa Damodar’s tutelage as long as he stayed in Puri, thus gaining direct access to Mahaprabhu’s confidential service and association. In all, he remained there for sixteen years until the Lord and his chief confidant disappeared to the eyes of this world.

When this event took place, Raghunath felt that he could no longer live in their absence and decided to go to Vrindavan to commit suicide by jumping from Govardhana Hill. When he arrived in Vraja, he met Rupa and Sanatan Goswamis. They spoke to him for a long time and finally persuaded him not to put an end to his life. They adopted him as their third brother and kept him with them. Rupa and Sanatan were enriched by hearing the nectarean pastimes of Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu from Raghunath.

Raghunath Das Goswami’s separation from Mahaprabhu and Radha-Krishna became so intense that he gave up eating solid food altogether, only drinking whey to sustain himself. He would pay a thousand prostrated obeisances, chant 100,000 Holy Names, serve Radha and Krishna mentally both day and night, recount the glorious pastimes of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and bathe three times a day without fail in Radha Kund. This was the exemplary standard of bhajana set by Raghunath in which he served their Lordships for more than 22 hours a day, sleeping only an hour and a half, if at all.

Raghunath’s renunciation may superficially be compared to that of the Buddha, but when examined more closely it will be observed that there are some unique characteristics in Raghunath’s asceticism. The external meaning of renunciation is detachment from sense gratification, but its true meaning is attachment to the supreme person. Raghunath’s strong attachment to the lotus feet of Radha and Krishna meant that he was completely and naturally detached from anything which was not connected to his worshipable lords.

Radha Kund

Sri Raghunath Das Goswami lived a long life. Srinivas Acharya had the chance to receive Raghunath’s blessings before leaving Vrindavan to return to the East with the Goswamis’ books. Srinivas was astounded by the powerful asceticism and deep absorption in love. Raghunath Das Goswami wrote three books: Stavavali, Shri Dana-carita (Dana-keli-cintamani) and Mukta-carita.

He lived in Radha Kund which was where he engaged in his most intense devotional practices. He was blessed there by Nityananda Prabhu’s widow, Jahnava Devi, when she visited Radha Kund.

When Mahaprabhu himself visited the village of Arit and displayed his pastime of bathing in a rice field, by which he indicated the presence of Radha Kund and Shyama Kund. At that time the two tanks had not been excavated and finished with steps, etc. Raghunath himself thought it would be a good idea to have this work done, but had some reservations about getting involved in this kind of work. However, one day, a rich merchant who was on pilgrimage to Badari Narayan with the intention of donating a large sum of money to the temple there. But Badari Narayan appeared to him in a dream and told him to fund Raghunath’s vision of a developed Radha Kund and Shyama Kund. The merchant came back to Vraja and found Raghunath in the village of Arit and recounted the story of the dream to him. Raghunath thus supervised the excavation of the ponds and the subsequent building of stone steps walkways.

Five trees stood on the banks of Shyama Kund which are said to be the five Pandavas. Raghunath had the intention of cutting down these trees so that Shyama Kund could be made perfectly rectangular. Before this could happen, however, Raghunath had a dream in which Yudhishthira appeared to him and told him that the five Pandavas were present in Radha Kund in the form of these trees. Raghunath immediately stopped the workers from cutting them down. This is why Shyama Kund was not built as a perfect rectangle.

Other Legends About Raghunath in Vraja

Another story is told about Raghunath Das Goswami. It is said that when he read Rupa Goswami’s play, Lalita Madhava, he was submerged in an ocean of separation. Though he he was permanently in Radha’s association at Radha Kund, he was unable to tolerate even a momentary threat of separation, what to speak of intense feelings of Krishna’s absence. When he read the Lalita-madhava, which has separation from Krishna as its primary subject matter, this mood became so strong that it became doubtful that he would be able to survive. When Rupa saw Raghunath’s response to his play, he wrote another, short work named Dana-keli-kaumudi which is full of humor and amusing banter. He gave this book to Raghunath and took back his copy of Lalita-Madhava. When Raghunath read Dana-keli-kaumudi, he forgot his feelings of separation.

At first, when staying by Radha Kund Raghunath had no fixed shelter. He occasionally stayed with Gopal Bhatta Goswami, whose cottage was situated on the banks of the Manasa-Ganga in Govardhana. One day he took bath in the Manasa-Ganga and then went to sit under a tree surrounded by unkept thickets and began to worship the Lord in a devotional trance. While he was meditating, a tiger came there to drink water. Sanatan Goswami was also present there at the time and observed Raghunath as he remained unmoved even though exposed to such danger. He instructed Raghunath to build a cottage in which to live and engage in his devotional activities.

Srila Raghunath Das Goswami had special affection for a certain Vrajavasi whose name was Das. Raghunath’s daily nourishment consisted of only a leaf bowl of whey. This Vrajavasi was distressed to learn that Raghunath ate so little, thinking that it was impossible for him to keep alive on such a small amount. One day when in the village known as Sakhisthali, he was overjoyed to see a silk cotton tree with huge leaves. He had a bigger sized bowl made with these leaves in which he put whey for Raghunath and then brought it to him. Raghunath was quite astonished to see such a large leaf-bowl and asked him where he got it. When he heard the name of Sakhisthali, he immediately threw down the bowl and the whey. Sakhisthali is the home of Candravali, Radharani’s primary rival for Krishna’s love. Candravali’s sakhis like Shaivya and Padma are constantly looking for ways to take Krishna away from Radha’s bower and bring him to that of their girlfriend. Just as Radharani is distressed by these actions, so are her girlfriends. Raghunath was a member of Radharani’s entourage and so it was his role to constantly think of how to bring happiness to her and her girlfriends. As soon as he heard the name of Sakhisthali mentioned, he was transported by anger. This mood is the ultimate stage of love which envious people who are burdened by material lust could never understand. In the Bhakti-ratnakara, it is written,

After calming down, Raghunath said to Das, “That is Candravali’s place. You shouldn’t ever go there.” Das Vrajavasi calmed down and recognized that these were the symptoms of spiritual perfection in what was apparently a spiritual aspirant. All these devotees are eternally perfected souls. Anyone who doubts it must be considered fallen. (Bhakti-ratnakara 5.572-4)

There is one other extraordinary legend about Raghunath Das Goswami recounted in the Bhakti-ratnakara. One day he was suffering from indigestion. Vitthalanatha came with two doctors from Vallabhapura to cure Raghunath Das. After examining him, the doctors said that the indigestion had been caused by eating rice and milk. Vitthalanatha was astonished to hear this diagnosis and said, “This is impossible. This man never eats anything but whey.” Raghunath then spoke up, saying that he had indeed eaten milk and rice in the course of his meditation on the pastimes of Radha and Krishna.

Sri Raghunath Das Goswami left his body on the banks of Radha Kund where his samadhi tomb stands. This took place on th Shukla Dvadashi tithi of the month of Ashvina, in the year 1586.

Srila Krishnadasa Kaviraja Goswami

Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami is the author of the Chaitanya Charitamrita, but has given us very little autobiographical information there. In his introduction to the Gaudiya Math’s edition of Chaitanya Charitamrita, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Goswami Thakur has written the following about Krishnadas’s antecedents: “We do not know the names of Krishnadas’s parents. Recently their names have been discovered, [FN: According to Ashutosh Deb’s Bengali Dictionary and Haridas Das’s Gaudiya Vaishnava Abhidhana, Krishnadas’s parents’ names were as Bhagiratha and Sunanda.] but no concrete evidence can be found to substantiate these claims. Krishnadas is his spiritual, not his family, name. He has given some autobiographical information in the fifth chapter of the Adi-lila, from which we learn that he was born in Jhamatpura, near the Salara railway station. Jhamatpura lies four miles west of Naihati in the Katwa block of Burdwan district. To this day, Krishnadas’s Gaura-Nitai deities are still worshiped in his home town, but there do not seem to be any descendants of his family still living there. He was ordered by Nityananda Prabhu in a dream to go to Vrindavan which is where he spent the remainder of his life. His samadhi tomb is on the grounds of the Radha-Damodar temple.” (Bhumika, ii.)

Nityananda Prabhu appeared to me in a dream in Jhamatpur, near Naihati. (1.5.181).

Srila Prabhupada Saraswati Goswami has established Krishnadas’s dates by collating information from several sources. He concludes that he was probably born in about 1520 AD and died in about 1616 or 1617. Vrindavan Das Thakur appeared sometime after 1510 AD. Krishnadas’s magnificent biography of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was meant to serve as an appendix to his work.

Krishnadas’s Varnashrama Status

There is some difference of opinion about Krishnadas’s caste. Once again, Srila Prabhupada, Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Thakur has discussed this point: “Supporters of different ideas claim that Krishnadas was born in one of the three upper castes (Brahmin, kayastha or vaidya). Kaviraj is a title given to those who have proven themselves by composing literary works which have achieved renown for their quality in learned circles. Since this title is also given to Ayurvedic physicians, some people hold that Krishnadas was a vaidya. It is difficult to contradict those who claim that he is a Brahmin on the basis of his extraordinary mastery of the scriptures and other branches of learning, of which Chaitanya Charitamrita is an eloquent testimonial. Nor is the view that he was a kayastha altogether illogical, as he reveals a soft spot for that caste when he praises its intelligence and managerial talents in the chapters about Raghunath Das Goswami’s early life.” (Bhumika, iii.)

From this above discussion, we can see that Krishnadas may have been born in any of these three castes. Whatever the case, a Vaishnava is a superior human being no matter in what caste he takes his birth.

All scriptures state that a Vaishnava is still the best of humankind. It it does not matter in which caste he takes birth. That most sinful person who judges a Vaishnava in terms of his race or his caste will repeatedly be born in the lowest forms of life. (Chaitanya Bhagavat 2.10.100-2)

There is no unanimous opinion about Krishnadas’s marital status, either. Some say that he was a lifelong brahmachari when he went to Vrindavan, for if he had left a wife and family he would likely have mentioned it when telling of his renunciation. Srila Prabhupada writes in this connection, “After arriving in Vrindavan, Krishnadas became indifferent to talk about his previous family life and totally absorbed in Hari-katha. This behavior is appropriate for someone in the third or fourth station and completely committed to the devotional life. The Chaitanya Charitamrita is the composition of someone who has reached the status of a paramahamsa and is completely beyond the four ashramas. He was known as Kaviraj Goswami to his spiritual family. His spiritual identity in Vraja lila is Ratnarekha Manjari, or Kasturi Manjari according to others.

From Krishnadas’s statements in the Chaitanya Charitamrita, we also learn that he had a brother. Krishnadas does not give his name, but Hari Das Das writes in the Gaudiya Vaishnava Abhidhana that he was called Shyama Das Kaviraj.

Krishnadas’s Vision of Nityananda Prabhu

In the course of his glorification of Nityananda Prabhu in the Chaitanya Charitamrita, Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami describes the crucial event in his life. Krishnadas had organized a 24-hour kirtan at his house and amongst those invited was Lord Nityananda’s dear associate, Minaketan Rama Das, who also lived in Jhamatpura.

Minaketan was a great Vaishnava who was in a constant state of devotional trance as he chanted the name of Nityananda Prabhu. In his ecstatic mood, he would sometimes hit people with his flute and sometimes slap them. In general, his ecstatic behavior was the cause of some astonishment amongst Krishnadas’s guests and most came to pay their obeisances and offer him their respects. Only Gunarnava Mishra, who had been engaged at the festival as a pujari, did not demonstrate a respectful attitude. This behavior was an indication that Gunarnava Mishra had no faith in Nityananda Prabhu. Rama Das became angry and criticized Mishra, saying,

”Just look! A second Romaharshana Suta who did not come forward to show respect when he saw Balaram!” (Chaitanya Charitamrita 1.5.170)

Gunarnava Mishra was pleased to have been chastised by Rama Das and simply continued in the performance of his service to the Deity. At the end of the kirtan festival, when Gunarnava Mishra had left, however, Krishnadas Kaviraj’s brother got into an argument with Minaketan Rama Das about what had happened. Krishnadas’s brother had strong faith in Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, but lacked similar faith in Nityananda. Upon hearing this, Rama Das was deeply wounded and he became so angry that he broke his flute and left. The result of this curse was that Krishnadas’s brother was doomed to completely losing any devotional attitude whatsoever. Krishnadas Kaviraj, however, took the side of Nityananda Prabhu’s associate and rebuked his brother:

”These two brothers [Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Nityananda Prabhu] are like one body; they are equal in their spiritual manifestation. If you do not accept the divinity of Lord Nityananda, you will fall down. To have faith in one but to disrespect the other is as logical as accepting half a hen. Better you should be an atheist by denying the divinity of both than a hypocrite who believes in one and not the other.” (Chaitanya Charitamrita 1.5.175-7)

The Lord is influenced by his devotees and he gives great importance to even the slightest display of attachment, bestowing upon them all that they desire. Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami writes that by taking the part of Nityananda Prabhu’s associate and chastizing his brother, he won the blessings of Nityananda Prabhu himself. Nitai came to him in a dream and ordered him to go to Vrindavan.

”O Krishnadas! Have no fear. Go to Vrindavan, for there you will attain all things.” After saying this, he indicated the way to Vrindavan by waving his hand and then disappeared with his associates. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 1.5.195-6)

By way of contrast, a person who holds devotees in contempt, though he show all the customary virtues is eternally deprived of the Lord’s blessings. The example is the zamindar Ramachandra Khan, who committed offenses to Hari Das Thakur, as a result of which he incurred Nityananda Prabhu’s displeasure. Not only did he lose everything, but his house was razed completely, leaving no remnants. Only a foolish person who lacks discrimination would be so bold as to behave unjustly toward a saintly person.

With words of profound humility, Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami proclaims the glories of Nityananda Prabhu:

I am more sinful than Jagai and Madhai and lower than a maggot in stool. Whoever hears my name loses the results of his virtuous deeds, and whoever utters my name commits a sin. Other than Nityananda, could anyone in this world show mercy to one as abominable as me? Nityananda is the incarnation of mercy; he is so intoxicated by ecstatic love that he does not discriminate between the good and the bad. He delivers anyone who fall down before him. Therefore he has delivered such a sinful and fallen person as me. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 1.5.205-9)

Krishnadas Writes the Final Pastimes of the Lord

Without the mercy of Vishnu and the Vaishnavas, it is impossible to describe their glories. It is for this reason that Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami begins each chapter of the Chaitanya Charitamrita with invocations to Mahaprabhu and his associates like Nityananda Prabhu, Advaita Acharya, and concludes each chapter with a prayer for the service to the feet of Rupa and Raghunath Goswamis. He thus showed how important it is to avoid any disrespect or offense to the Vaishnavas.

The activities of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu are by nature wonderful and sweet. When described by Vrindavan Das Thakur, they become a shower of nectar. To describe them again would not only be repetition, but a display of arrogance, for I do not possess his powers. I shall thus only present a synopsis of those events already described fully by Vrindavan Das in his Chaitanya Mangala. I shall do my best to fully describe in this book only those incidents mentioned in his outline which he did not develop. I therefore offer respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of Vrindavan Das Thakur, praying that I will not offend his lotus feet by my action. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 2.4.5-9)

Just as Vyasadeva compiled Lord Krishna’s pastimes in Srimad Bhagavatam, Thakur Vrindavan Das depicted Lord Chaitanya’s pastimes.... I offer millions of obeisances unto the lotus feet of Vrindavan Das Thakur who has delivered the entire universe through his book. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 1.8.35,40)

Vrindavan Das the authorized biographer of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and equal to Srila Vyasadeva. He has described the Lord’s pastimes in such a way as to make them sweeter and sweeter. I shall try as far as possible to fill in descriptions he left out due to his fear of his book’s becoming too voluminous. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 1.13.48-9)

In his foreword to the edition of the Chaitanya Charitamrita published by the Sri Chaitanya Gaudiya Math, the president of the editorial board of Chaitanya Vani magazine, H. H. Bhakti Pramoda Puri Goswami Maharaj, has written: “Vrindavan Das Thakur wrote an elaborate outline of Mahaprabhu’s lila at the beginning of the Chaitanya Bhagavat, but as he became absorbed in describing Nityananda’s activities, many events mentioned in the outline were left out of the final version of the book. Mahaprabhu’s Vrindavan devotees approached Krishnadas Kaviraj, asking him to write down a full version of these pastimes, for if it were not done, they would be forgotten. Krishnadas then went to the deity of Madana Mohana and asked him for permission to do as he had been asked. In front of all the prominent contemporary members of the Gaudiya community in Vrindavan, the garland fell from Madana Mohana’s neck. This was taken by all who were present as a sign of the Lord’s approval and they let out a joyous cheer. Madana Mohana’s pujari picked up the garland and placed it on Krishnadas’s chest. Joyfully taking the garland as a symbol of the Deity’s wishes, Krishnadas began to write his biography of the Lord. Thus he has written in great humility.

Chaitanya Charitamrita is being dictated to me by Madana Mohana. My writing is like the repetition of a parrot. I write as Madana Gopal orders me, just as a wooden marionette is made to dance by a puppeteer. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 1.8.78-9)

In writing Chaitanya Charitamrita, Krishnadas made use of Svarupa Damodar’s notes, which Raghunath Das Goswami had memorized. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakur has described this as follows: “Sri Svarupa Damodar Goswami wrote an outline in Sanskrit (karica) of Mahaprabhu’s later activities. He had Raghunath memorize these verses and told him to preach them throughout the world. These verses were not written down anywhere else, however. The Chaitanya Charitamrita is the gist of Svarupa Damodar’s karica.

Though I am an insignificant living being, through the blessings of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu I have summarized in writing everything that Svarupa Damodar recorded in his notes about the Lord’s pastimes, as well as everything that I heard from the mouth of Raghunath Das. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 3.3.269-70)

Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s glorious name, form, qualities and activities all manifest in Krishnadas Kaviraj’s heart, which he then published in the Chaitanya Charitamrita. He himself stated this fact in various places throughout the book:

I am now an old man and an invalid. My hand trembles as I write and my memory fails me. I am going blind and deaf, but still I manage to write and this is a great wonder. (Chaitanya Charitamrita 2.2.90)

While Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Goswami Thakur was once glorifying the superlative character of Chaitanya Charitamrita to his disciples, he instructed them as follows: “If it were to happen that all the books in the world were destroyed, leaving only Srimad Bhagavatam and Chaitanya Charitamrita, then the people of this world would still be able to achieve the ultimate goal in life. Even if the Srimad Bhagavatam were lost, leaving only the Chaitanya Charitamrita, there would be no loss to humanity, for that which has not been revealed in the Bhagavat is found in Chaitanya Charitamrita. The supreme absolute truth is Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the combined form of Radha and Krishna. The Chaitanya Charitamrita is his sound incarnation. The divine mystery of Radharani’s divine status and glories are found therein. Can there be any doubt, therefore, of the supreme status of this piece of transcendental literature?”

This statement underscores the supremely special status of Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami himself. His three books, Chaitanya Charitamrita, Govinda-lilamrita and a commentary on Krishna-karnamrita, are all priceless works. Govinda-lilamrita describes in detail Lord Krishna’s activities over a twenty-four-hour period. Narottama Das Thakur has therefore stated:

krishnadasa kaviraja, rasika bhakata majh
jenho kaila caitanya-carita
gaura-govinda-lila, shunite galaye shila
tahate na haila mora cita
Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami stands out amongst the devotional literati, for he is the author of the biography of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. He described both Gaura and Govinda’s lila, hearing which even a stone would melt. Alas, even so, my mind has not been attracted by these works. (Prema-bhakti-candrika)

Krishnadas was honored with the title kaviraja (“king of poets”) for his Govinda-lilamrita. He is also respected in the Vaishnava world as the best amongst the followers of Rupa Goswami.

The Authoritativeness of the Chaitanya Charitamrita

From the illustrious commentator Vishvanath Chakravarti’s tika to the Chaitanya Charitamrita, we can understand a little better just how dear Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami was to Radharani, and by the same token, how the deepest and most esoteric truths of the Divinity were revealed to him, showing that every word he wrote is to be taken as the supreme spiritual truth. H. H. Bhakti Pramoda Puri Maharaj has recounted the following anecdote in his foreward to the Chaitanya Gaudiya Math edition of the Chaitanya Charitamrita: “While Vishvanath Chakravarti was writing his commentary on the Chaitanya Charitamrita, Madhya-lila 21.125, he was unable to understand why Kaviraj Goswami had written that the kama-gayatri mantra consists of 24_ syllables rather than 25. He became so distraught by his inability to comprehend that he finally took a vow to starve to death by the banks of Radha Kund. As he dozed off in the middle of the night, the daughter of Vrishabhanu appeared to him in a dream and said to him, ‘O Vishvanath! Get up. Krishnadas has indeed written correctly. He is my dear girlfriend, who brings me much pleasure. I have blessed him so that he can understand the most intimate truths about myself. Do not doubt anything he has written. In the book named Varnagama-bhasvat, it is written that whenever the syllable ya is followed by the syllable vi, it is considered to be only half a syllable.’”

In the Bhakti-ratnakara it is mentioned that Srinivas Acharya met Krishnadas Kaviraj, Raghunath Das Goswami and Sri Raghava when he arrived in Vrindavan (Bhakti-ratnakara 4.392).

On the grounds of Krishnadas Kaviraj’s home in Jhamatpura is a small temple containing Nityananda’s footprints. Local legend has it that Krishna-Das received Nityananda’s mercy, i.e., initiation into the mantra, at this very spot. According to the Prema-vilasa, however, Krishnadas took initiation from Raghunath Das Goswami. In the temple there is a wooden sandal which is said to have been Krishnadas’s. His cottage and samadhi tomb are in Radha Kund. His disappearance took place after that of Raghunath Das Goswami, on the Shukla Dvadashi tithi of the month of Ashvina.


[1] Saptagram was made up of seven villages: Saptagram, Vamsibati, Shivapura, Vasudevapura, Nityanandapura and Saìkhanagara. It was the main trade center on the Ganges in Bengal in the 15th and 16th centuries. The modern town of Triveni grew out of Saptagram.

[2] Srila Prabhupada A. C. Bhaktivedanta Svami writes: “When a man takes a dead body to the crematorium, he sometimes thinks, "This is the final end of the body. Why am I working so hard day and night?" Such sentiments naturally arise in the mind of any man who goes to a crematorial ghaöa. However, as soon as he returns from the cremation grounds, he again engages in material activity for sense enjoyment. This is called smasana-vairagya, or markaöa-vairagya.”

Excerpted from "Sri Chaitanya: His Life & Associates" by Srila Bhakti Ballabh Tirtha Maharaj

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